Strengthening the parent-child relationships requires work and effort. Parenting is a tough job, but by maintaining a close relationship and open. A good parent-child relationship is vital for the development of children and researchers look at factors affecting parent-child relationships. Healthy, functional relationships between children and their parents (or other caregivers) are characterized by the following. Increasing the presence of these.
It is a combination of behaviours, feelings and expectations which are unique to a particular parent and child. Both the parent and the child contribute equally to this association. The characteristics of the parents will play a crucial role in this alliance. For example parents who have already experienced this through younger siblings or career paths are often times better able to cope with parenthood. The age of the parents is also important.
Older mothers tend to be more responsible to their infants than younger mothers. Furthermore the stability of the parents marriage affects the parent child association in many styles. Characteristics that may affect the parent child relationship will keep varying as the child grows.
It is strengthened by mutual interaction. Hence it is very much essential that the parents spend adequate time with their babies. Working parents must note this point and always put their child in front before their work.
After this stage is the toddler stage. The parents now change from caretakers and nurturers to teachers also. During the school years, the children will slowly start moving with peers. This is not to be noted as a negative impact on their relationship. At birth, the infant's physical appearance may not meet the parent's expectations, or the infant may resemble a disliked relative.
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As a result, the parent may subconsciously reject the child. If the parents wanted a baby of a particular sex, they may be disappointed if the baby is the opposite sex. If parents do not have the opportunity to talk about this disappointment, they may reject the infant.
Children who are loved thrive better than those who are not. Either parent or a nonparent caregiver may serve as the primary caregiver or form the primary parent-child love relationship. Loss of love from a primary caregiver can occur with the death of a parent or interruption of parental contact through prolonged hospitalizations. Divorce can interfere with the child's need to eat, improve, and advance.
Cultural norms within the family also affect a child's likelihood to achieve particular developmental milestones. Cultural impact In some countries, childrearing is considered protective nurturing.
Children are not rushed into new experiences like toilet training or being in school. In other countries, children are commonly treated in a harsh, strict manner, using shame or corporal punishment for discipline. In Central American nations, toilet training may begin as early as when the child can sit upright.
Childhood in the United States stretches across many years. In other countries, children are expected to enter the adult world of work when they are still quite young: In addition, in Asian cultures, parents understand an infant's personality in part in terms of the child's year and time of birth.
Impact of birth order The position of a child in the family, whether a firstborn, a middle child, the youngest, an only child, or one within a large family, has some bearing on the child's growth and development. An only child or the oldest child in a family excels in language development because conversations are mainly with adults.
Children learn by watching other children; however, a firstborn or an only child, who has no example to watch, may not excel in other skills, such as toilet training, at an early age. Infancy As babies are cared for by their parents, both parties develop understandings of the other.
Gradually, babies begin to expect that their parent will care for them when they cry. Gradually, parents respond to and even anticipate their baby's needs. This exchange and familiarity create the basis for a developing relationship. Attachment is a sense of belonging to or connection with a particular other. This significant bond between infant and parent is critical to the infant's survival and development.
Started immediately after birth, attachment is strengthened by mutually satisfying interaction between the parents and the infant throughout the first months of life, called bonding. By the end of the first year, most infants have formed an attachment relationship, usually with the primary caretaker. If parents can adapt to their babies, meet their needs, and provide nurturance, the attachment is secure.
Psychosocial development can continue based on a strong foundation of attachment. On the other hand, if a parent's personality and ability to cope with the infant's needs for care are minimal, the relationship is at risk and so is the infant's development.
By six to seven months, strong feelings of attachment enable the infant to distinguish between caregivers and strangers. The infant displays an obvious preference for parents over other caregivers and other unfamiliar people. Anxietydemonstrated by crying, clinging, and turning away from the stranger, is revealed when separation occurs.
This behavior peaks between seven and nine months and again during toddlerhood, when separation may be difficult.
Ideal Relationship Between Parents and Children
Although possibly stressful for the parents, stranger anxiety is a normal sign of healthy child attachment and occurs because of cognitive development. Most children develop a secure attachment when reunited with their caregiver after a temporary absence. In contrast, some children with an insecure attachment want to be held, but they are not comfortable; they kick or push away. Others seem indifferent to the parent's return and ignore them when they return. The quality of the infant's attachment predicts later development.
Youngsters who emerge from infancy with a secure attachment stand a better chance of developing happy and healthy relationships with others. The attachment relationship not only forms the emotional basis for the continued development of the parent-child relationship, but can serve as a foundation for future social connections.
Secure infants have parents who sensitively read their infant's cues and respond properly to their needs. Toddlerhood When children move from infancy into toddlerhood, the parent-child relationship begins to change.
During infancy, the primary role of the parent-child relationship is nurturing and predictability, and much of the relationship revolves around the day-to-day demands of caregiving: As youngsters begin to talk and become more mobile during the second and third years of life, however, parents usually try to shape their child's social behavior.
In essence, parents become teachers as well as nurturers, providers of guidance as well as affection.
Socialization preparing the youngster to live as a member of a social group implicit during most of the first two years of life, becomes clear as the child moves toward his or her third birthday. Socialization is an important part of the parent-child relationship.
It includes various child-rearing practices, for example weaning, toilet training, and discipline. Dimensions of the parent-child relationship are linked to the child's psychological development, specifically how responsive the parents are, and how demanding they are. Responsive parents are warm and accepting toward their children, enjoying them and trying to see things from their perspective.
In contrast, nonresponsive parents are aloof, rejecting, or critical. They show little pleasure in their children and are often insensitive to their emotional needs. Some parents are demanding, while others are too tolerant. Children's healthy psychological development is facilitated when the parents are both responsive and moderately demanding.
During toddlerhood, children often begin to assert their need for autonomy by challenging their parents. Sometimes, the child's newfound assertiveness during the so-called terrible twos can put a strain on the parent-child relationship.
It is important that parents recognize that this behavior is normal for the toddler, and the healthy development of independence is promoted by a parent-child relationship that provides support for the child's developing sense of autonomy. In many regards, the security of the first attachment between infant and parent provides the child with the emotional base to begin exploring the world outside the parent-child relationship. Preschool Various parenting styles evolve during the preschool years.
Preschoolers with authoritative parents are curious about new experiences, focused and skilled at playself-reliant, self-controlled, and cheerful.
School age During the elementary school years, the child becomes increasingly interested in peers, but this is not be a sign of disinterest in the parent-child relationship. Rather, with the natural broadening of psychosocial and cognitive abilities, the child's social world expands to include more people and settings beyond the home environment. The parent-child relationship remains the most important influence on the child's development.
Children whose parents are both responsive and demanding continue to thrive psychologically and socially during the middle childhood years. During the school years, the parent-child relationship continues to be influenced by the child and the parents. In most families, patterns of interaction between parent and child are well established in the elementary school years.
Adolescence As the child enters adolescencebiological, cognitive, and emotional changes transform the parent-child relationship. The child's urges for independence may challenge parents' authority.
Many parents find early adolescence a difficult period.