GATT/WTO | Duke University School of Law
therefore a cornerstone of the GATT and one of the pillars of the WTO trading system . Article I:1 covers a broad range of measures in relation to exportation and . The third element in the three-tier test is the granting of the advantage. Abstract. The necessity test in the GATT/WTO legal system has long been attacked of the recent WTO case law and attempts to make three claims in relation to. of all the GATT/WTO case-law in this respect may be found in C. Dordi, La discriminazione Japan argued that the sochu was not in a 'like' or DCS relationship to the .. It considered such an approach akin to a 'type of trade effects test'.
L38 contains other primary documents such as ministerial declarations and decisions. Analytical Index, 6th ed. G84 and on HeinOnline includes the text of the agreement, the application and interpretation of its provisions, the drafting history and other relevant documents. B36 and on HeinOnline. This annual publication is the primary source of GATT documents.
It contains the text of GATT agreements and amendments, Protocol of Provisional Application and Annexes and other legal instruments such as decisions, declarations, resolutions, and other selected documents.
Unfortunately, it is several years behind. The online versions are more current than the book. You must register to access the full texts of the documents, but registration is free. This site also includes bibliographies, research guides and links to other useful websites. The fiche set includes committee reports, press releases, speeches, etc.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
Some documents, including documents from multilateral trade negotiations, have never been de-restricted or released. Documents are arranged by fiche number. Legal materials are published here before they appear in BISD. You can view issues online or sign up for e-mail delivery of upcoming issues. The WTO Reporter is a daily digest covering issues such as accession to the WTO, antidumping regulations, and taxation; it also includes regular analysis of domestic and international case law on trade issues.
The International Trade Reporter contains both digests and full texts of administrative and judicial decisions on U. Trade Representative and other bodies. G66 is a guide to the terminology used in trade negotiations, focusing on the WTO. B also offers a comprehensive review of international trade terminology.
Amrtia Narlikar, et al. Constitution and Jurisprudence K J34 and The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations, 2d ed.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
J34 and online. L38 which provides basic documents, analysis, and commentaries. N37 and online focuses on the politics of the WTO. O94 and online.
Schaffer, "The World Trade Organization: Legal Transactions in a Global Economy Ref. Petros Mavroidis, Trade in Goods: N48 this critical text analyzes the failures of the WTO to elicit compliance with agreements using social science theories.
This system continues in the WTO, with some changes in procedure and enforcement. A Collection of the Relevant Legal Texts, 3d ed.
WTO | Trade and environment
Reports are often available in English, French, and Spanish. Be aware that these decisions are often very lengthy. Because these reports are available in many sources, it is a good idea to cite to paragraph numbers since they all include the paragraph numbering. The WTO website provides a chronological list of disputes along with related documents.
Dispute Settlement Reports K These are the WTO authorized and paginated English reports coverage begins in Bernan's Annotated Reporter K A7 W67 is an excellent subject guide to Appellate Body and Arbitration awards through Other places to find panel reports and decisions include: It is in no way intended to provide legal guidance with respect to, or an authoritative legal interpretation of, the provisions of any WTO agreement.
Moreover, nothing in this note affects, nor is intended to affect, WTO members' rights and obligations in any way. Two exceptions are of particular relevance to the protection of the environment: Pursuant to these two paragraphs, WTO members may adopt policy measures that are inconsistent with GATT disciplines, but necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health paragraph bor relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources paragraph g.
Environmental policies covered by Article XX WTO members' autonomy to determine their own environmental objectives has been reaffirmed on a number of occasions e.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade | international relations | sport-statistik.info
In past cases, a number of policies have been found to fall within the realm of these two exceptions: The Appellate Body found that there was a sufficient nexus between the migratory and endangered marine populations involved and the United States for purposes of Article XX g.
Degree of connection between the means and the environmental policy objective In order for a trade-related environmental measure to be eligible for an exception under Article XX, paragraphs b and ga member has to establish a connection between its stated environmental policy goal and the measure at issue.
The measure needs to be either: If this analysis yields a preliminary conclusion that the measure is necessary, this result must be confirmed by comparing the measure with its possible alternatives, which may be less trade restrictive while providing an equivalent contribution to the achievement of the objective pursued. The Appellate Body also found that the proposed alternatives, which were mostly remedial in nature i.