Rosalind Franklin :: DNA from the Beginning
Rosalind Franklin is best known for her contribution to unraveling the However, it was researchers James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins who were The relationship between Wilkins and Franklin was frosty at best, the most fundamental of all questions concerning the mechanism of living. Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July – 16 April ) was an English chemist and X-ray . Through this, she discovered the relationship between the fine constrictions in the Franklin applied them to further problems related to coal, in particular the . In February , Francis Crick and James Watson of the Cavendish. Natalie Starkey: Rosalind Franklin, celebrated in a Google doodle for was awarded to Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins "for to try to make The Guardian sustainable by deepening our relationship with our readers. Your support counts. Together we can be a force for change. Topics.
What lessons have scientists learned from Franklin's experiences? It is here that she met Maurice Wilkins, who was the assistant laboratory chief.
Rosalind Franklin: Navigating workplace politics to gain recognition in science
The relationship between Wilkins and Franklin was frosty at best, initiated by a confusion of hierarchy in the workplace. According to Barbara Maddox, author of the biography Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, the relationship between Franklin and Wilkins represents "one of the great personal quarrels in the history of science. Scientists know that rivalries among colleagues are not uncommon.
But personal differences can get in the way of collaboration and success, as Franklin's story shows. A challenging working environment Franklin became very unhappy at King's, yet she remained committed to her research. With the help of graduate student Raymond Gosling, Franklin managed to capture two high-resolution images of DNA - one of which was the famous photo 51, described by X-ray crystallographer J. Bernal as "among the most beautiful X-ray photographs of any substance ever taken.
With this knowledge, they were able to publish their model of the DNA double helix. If she had, there would have been an almighty explosion," said Glynn. However, it was her continued perseverance in the face of professional and personal challenges that has earned her the label of a female icon. Pursuing a new area of research After spending 2 unhappy years at King's College, Franklin moved to Birkbeck College in London to study viruses.
Franklin pictured in a laboratory at Birkbeck College in National Library of Medicine "I think many people were taken aback by her personality and authority, and the entire situation that transpired between Franklin and Wilkins would be enough to drive many people out of science altogether," Ellen Elliott, Ph.
Rosalind Franklin - Wikipedia
At the time, knowledge of molecular biology was still in its infancy, as Prof. But intragedy hit. During a work-related visit to the United States, Franklin began experiencing swelling and pain in her abdomen. She was soon diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Over the following year, Franklin underwent numerous surgeries and treatments for her cancer.
She continued her work throughout, even applying for a 3-year research grant so that her team could investigate the structure of the polio virus - the first animal virus to be crystallized.
After her passing, two members of her research team - John Finch and Aaron Klug - published a paper detailing the structure of the polio virus, which they dedicated to Franklin. Even in the face of death, Franklin put science first. They spent much of this way, not talking to each other, not collaborating, not exchanging ideas.
These data were what Watson and Crick used to build their double helix structure. They — or rather. Crick — could see the implications of those data where Franklin had not because Crick had recently developed a mathematical procedure for turning the 2-dimensional data produced by a molecular helix into a 3-dimensional model; he had published this in Nature in October This was pretty complex stuff, and Crick was one of the few people in the world to know how to do this.
By the beginning of Marchthey had finished their model; at the same time, Franklin, working on her own, had realised that DNA was made of two strands, going in opposite directions, with the bases that connect the two strands organised in an infinite number of ways, providing the variability that could encode genetic information. She never got any further, because the Cambridge duo beat her to it, using her own data.
The double helix structure appeared in Nature in Apriltogether with two empirical articles, one by Franklin, the other by Wilkins. Franklin went on to make major contributions to virus structure, but died of ovarian cancer in April In Octoberfollowing the cracking of the genetic code that summer, Watson, Crick and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize for determining the double helix structure of DNA. Now, what if Franklin and Wilkins had been able to work together?
What would have happened?
Would Rosalind Franklin have won a Nobel for her work on viruses?
Things would have turned out rather differently. Wilkins and Franklin would still have rubbed each other the wrong way, there would still have been rows, but it seems virtually certain that Watson and Crick, as a duo who shaped subsequent events, would not have got a look-in. By mid, Wilkins and Franklin would have obtained data from both A- and B-forms of DNA, and would be trying to understand how they were structured.
Crick hoped to submit the article to Nature, and asked Wilkins to give him his opinion.