# Relationship b interest rate and exchange

### Relationship between exchange rate and interest rate | AnalystForum

Although interest rates can be a major factor influencing currency value the relationship that exists between higher interest rates and inflation. This paper empirically examines the long-run relationship between real exchange rates and real interest rate differentials over the recent. Downloadable! This paper uses wavelet analysis to investigate the relationship between the spot exchange rate and the interest rate differential for seven pairs.

This result is consistent with the theoretical prediction of our model if we assume that in the period studied, the Brazilian economy was at the "wrong" side of the U-shaped curve. It would be interesting to estimate the relation between those variables for low debt and low interest rates, but the post period was marked by high debt and real interest rate levels only.

Hence, it is not possible to empirically identify the other side of the U-shaped curve. The economic literature has already shown that the ability of monetary policy to control inflation may be hindered in some situations.

Sargent e Wallace argue in their seminal article that raising interest rates may lead to increased expected inflation if households anticipate debt will eventually need to be monetized due to a greater interest burden.

Drazen e Masson go further and add signalling considerations to this analysis. In their model, tight monetary policy helps signalling toughness, which leads to lower expected inflation. However, by increasing unemployment, tight monetary policy also worsens the trade-off faced by the policy maker in the future as long as unemployment has some persistence. This second effect may offset the first and lead to higher expected inflation. Blanchard recent article suggests the possibility of multiple equilibria in the relation between interest rates and exchange rates.

In one equilibrium, the traditional UIP holds and in the other it is upside down. Which equilibria best describes the economy depends on the debt levels and risk premia. He concludes by claiming that high indebtedness may cause the inflation targeting system to work poorly in Brazil.

The model in Akemann e Kanczuk is similar to ours since it endogenizes the link between interest rates and the default risk. There, because of what the authors call "political constraints " the government has to fulfill a certain primary surplus, and higher interest rates augments the probability of a default. However, differently from all these articles we assume neither an exogenous haircut nor that the central bank rescues the government by printing money.

### Interest rate parity - Wikipedia

On the empirical front, estimating the effects of monetary policy on asset prices has been the aim of a branch of the literature beginning with Cook e Hahn Recently, more attention has been devoted to the issue of identification, and the methodology developed by Rigobon e Sack that we use here is not the only proposed alternative.

Zettelmeyer regresses changes in exchange rates around meeting dates on the changes in interest rates over the same window using the change in the policy rate as an instrument. However, in the case of Brazil, data on the surprise in the policy rate is not available, and the assumption that the choice of the policy rate is not significantly influenced by economic and political news that do affect asset prices in general may be a bit too strong due to the high frequency and magnitude of shocks that hit the Brazilian economy.

We hence opted for the methodology of identification through heteroskedasticity. The effects presented here refer to the bulk of the time Brazil has been following an inflation targeting regime. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In Section 3, we present the econometric methodology and explain its key underlying assumptions, and in Section 4 we present the results.

Similar to the workings of a traditional Laffer curve, the exchange rate initially appreciates as the interest rate rises but after a threshold it depreciates as the risk of default effect more than offsets the direct effect.

The purpose here is not develop a structural model to be estimated later in the empirical part of this work. The idea is simply to ilustrate our point more formally.

Consider a small open economy in which the government - fiscal authority - inherits a certain amount of debt, b. The Central Bank independently decides the level of the interest rate. This uncertainty about government resources stems from the fact that tax revenues depend on the behavior of stochastic variables like the pace of economic activity and relative prices, which are unknown when investment decisions are made.

**108. How Interest Rates Move the Forex Market Part 1**

If taxes just cover gm, total default ensues. We also assume that there is a floor on government expenditures, gm. There are two ways to justify that assumption. First, and this applies clearly to the Brazilian case, some expenditures may be constitutionally mandatory and hence out of the Executive's discretionary reach.

Second, it may be politically inviable to severely cut government outlays beyond a certain level. For instance, the incumbent party may ruin its chances of staying in power after the next election or face risks of being ousted by social turmoil if it does not provide a minimum amount of public goods. Default periods, however, bring costs to the country. So the following non-arbitrage condition must hold: In our model, there is no coordination between monetary and fiscal policy.

The monetary authority chooses interest rates with the sole objective of achieving the inflation target, and its decision is not influenced by the fiscal stance. The fiscal authority, in turn, is passive: In the non-arbitrage condition, it is usually assumed that eF is pinned down by long-term fundamentals and all variations in the right-hand side of 1 are reflected in changes in eS.

A milder and more realistic assumption - which we employ here - is that eF is less elastic than eS to variations on the right-hand side of equation 1. The crucial question for us is: Because the first term is positive and the second is negative, the sign of - and therefore of - is undetermined. If Rb is small, the effect of interest rates on the value of the currency is positive.

On the other hand, if Rb is high and the probability of default is close to 1, the effect becomes negative and increases in interest rates cause the currency to depreciate. The relation between eS and R is hence U-shaped. Higher interest rates lead the currency to appreciate for lower values of Rb but weaken the currency if Rb is higher than the threshold Rbth.

Higher interest rates are promises of more payment to creditors in the future. If the government is using all available resources to pay debt up to Rbhow can a higher R generate lower expected repayment? The reason is that a higher R increases the probability that the government may be forced to renege on this promise, which is costly. Therefore, a higher R has a negative impact on the size of the expected amount available for repayment.

This can be seen in equation 1. This effect occurs only if there is no default, so it is less important as the probability of default increases. Importantly, the fiscal dominance region may not be negligible. We do not pursue this debate further, however, because it is difficult to obtain accurate quantitative implications from this model.

Our point is simpler: This relationship depends on Rb: In this section, we provide some empirical evidence that higher interest rates can indeed lead to a currency depreciation. An important difficulty in obtaining reliable estimators is that identification problems - reverse causality and omitted variables - seem to be acute in this case.

Hence we need a coherent identification strategy to estimate the relationship between variations in the interest rate and variations in the exchange rate consistently. Using data on these variables around the days the monetary policy committee Copom meets, our strategy will be to apply Rigobon and Sack's methodology of identification through heteroskedasticity.

Monetary policy in Brazil After abandoning a currency peg regime inthe Brazilian Central Bank BCB hereafter opted to target inflation and let the exchange rate float. Under the new regime, the BCB has been following with rigor the usual procedures of accountability and communication. These include, among other things, a monthly meeting of its monetary policy committee Copom, hereafteralmost always on the third Wednesday of the respective month, when a decision on the prime rate is reached by a board of directors.

Despite the successful results in terms of price stability, there is a raging debate, both in the media and within academic circles, concerning the desirability of the Brazilian Central Bank's BCB's policy. Whereas on one side some economists criticize the high interest rate policy based on "fiscal dominance" type of concerns, others say high rates are a consequence of Brazil's poor track record on price stability and argue that "excessive toughness" may be needed to signal serious inflation aversion.

What is puzzling, however, is that Brazilian interest rates have been substantially and consistently higher than the US Treasury bills plus Brazil's own EMBI risk measure. Is the BCB simply getting it wrong? A related debate concerns the causes behind the appreciation of the Brazilian currency in recent years: But are these claims supported by the data?

The answer to this question has serious policy implications for Brazil's policy makers since one of the channels linking monetary policy to inflation is through its effects on the exchange rate. If the answer is negative, then the case for high interest rates is weakened. Because the Copom meetings take place on Wednesdays, our variables are constructed as follows: The number of observations in each of the two sets is denoted by TC and TNrespectively.

In order to identify the effect of interest rates on the exchange rate, it is not enough to evaluate their correlation or run an OLS regression because of endogeneity problems the interest rate and the exchange rate are influenced by each other and the presence of omitted variables in the regression the interest rate and the exchange rate are influenced by other common variables. The following system of equations captures these features.

However, this correlation reflects not only the impact of interest rates on exchange rates, but possibly also the effect of exchange rates on the interest rate. Figure 2 shows a similar pattern for the Non-Copom dates data. The methodology of identification through heteroskedasticity allows us to disentangle those effects, making use of the fact that on Copom dates there is an extra shock to interest rates the decision of the Central Bank which is absent in non-Copom dates.

Methodology In order to circumvent the endogeneity and omitted-variables problems, we use the methodology of identification through heteroskedasticity proposed by Rigobon e Sack The intuition is the following: Solving for the reduced form of equations 2 and 3, we reach: Analogous results are obtained for the instrument ws.

In addition, the exposure of the Australian financial sector has increased over the last decade. So far, the empirical literature on the link between the interest rate and the stock return has been developed primarily in the time domain by using a board range of time series methods, including GARCH-M methodology Elyasiani and Mansur found that the interest rate-level volatility directly affects the first and second moments of the bank stock return distribution, respectively.

Relationship between exchange rate and stock return of financial sector Modeling the exchange rate exposure has been an important growing area of research in the last decade. They found that bilateral relationships between the stock and foreign exchange markets had been highly significant for both France and Germany.

Although the theoretical literature suggests causal relations between the stock prices and the exchange rates, empirical evidence is rather weak. They also found a causal relation from the equity market to foreign exchange market for Hong, Korea, and Singapore. Furthermore, while no country shows a significant causality from the stock prices to exchange rates during the Asian crisis, a causal relation from the exchange rates to the stock prices is found for all the countries except for Malaysia.

In their study on Istanbul Stock Exchange ISEAcikalin and Seyfettin Unal used a co-integration test and vector error correlation model showing that the exchange rate has a direct long-run equilibrium relationship with the stock market index. Findings from the study reveal two ways of causalities between the two variables; which implies that prediction of ISE is possible using the past information on the moves of the exchange rate. Relationship between exchange rate, interest rate, and stock return of financial sector The third strand of studies has examined the impact of the exchange rate, interest rate, and the stock returns on the financial sector.

In addition, Ryan and Worthington identified a three-way linkage between the market, interest rate, and foreign exchange rate risk in the Australian banking. Their results suggest that market risk is an important determinant of bank stock returns, along with short- and medium-term interest rate levels and their volatility. However, long-term interest rates and the foreign exchange rate do not appear to be significant factors in the Australian bank return generating process over the considered.

Period Most empirical studies concerning the pricing of bank stock returns focus mainly on the pricing of the interest rate and very few published papers explicitly investigate the joint interaction of exchange rates and interest rates on bank stock pricing however Choi, Elyasiani, and Kopecky show that they examined the role of the market the interest rate, and the exchange rate risks in pricing the US commercial bank stock returns by estimating and testing a three-factor model under both unconditional and conditional frameworks, on the other hand.

In contrast, the interest and exchange rates have a significant negative and mixed, respectively effect in a fewer number of cases. They showed that the three types of risk are found to play a role mainly in the financial service sector, but with no clear sign pattern. Finally, in most cases, volatility spillovers occur from the market return to sector returns in the insurance and banking sector in the European economies, though there are also some instances of interest rate and exchange rate spillovers, both in Europe and the USA.

However, Ahmad, Ahmad, and Rehman employed a multiple regression model to test the significance the change in the interest and exchange rate on the tock returns. They showed that both the change of the interest rate and that of the exchange rate have a significant impact on the stock returns over of the sample period. They found that the interest and exchange rate changes have a negative and significant impact on the conditional banks stock returns.

In addition, the bank stock return sensitivities are found to be stronger for the market return than for the interest and exchange rate, implying that the market returns play an important role in determining the dynamics of the conditional returns of the banks stocks. In the same view, Aloui and Jarboui using the OLS and GARCH estimation models, they found that the exchange and the market index have an impact and an important role in determining the dynamics of the conditional bank stock returns.

However, the interest rates do not appear to be significant factors in the Tunisian bank returns. The present study is different from the previous studies in the different ways. First, it uses a four-variate VAR-GARCH 1, 1 -in mean model to study the four-way linkages between the financial sector index, the stock market index, the interest rate, and the exchange rate for a panel of eight countries.

However, to the best of our knowledge, none of the empirical studies has focused on the four-way linkages between the financial sector index, the stock market index, the interest rate, and the exchange rate, especially the combination of financial sector by using four-variate VAR-GARCH 1, 1 -in mean model framework.

The model helps us examine, at the same time, the impact of the stock market index, the interest rate, and the exchange rate on the financial sector index. Second, we use a four-variate VAR-GARCH 1, 1 -in mean model because this helps not only with the time-varying conditional variances but also with the time-varying conditional covariance.

In addition, the earlier GARCH models failed to ensure positive definiteness of the conditional covariance matrix. Relationship between European, China, and US markets In the literature dealing with the trade and financial linkages for the properties of business cycles, a number of studies consider how such linkages affect the nature of the cyclical interactions between the emerging and European economies.

Some of these studies focus on the changes in the time-series patterns of the interdependence across both groups of countries. Some other studies attempt to measure the magnitude of the spillovers between both groups.

The EU has seen its low-trade surplus years. The financial crisis has caused a banking crash in the US, with cascading bank failures.

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Far from being spared, the European banks have, in turn, recorded losses. The evidence, as almost zero growth rates inshows that the crisis hit Europe. Indeed, the euro-zone has an experience of loss of competitiveness against the dollar zone. Undermined in part by the economic setbacks experienced by China, the stock markets derailed in August.

The agitated volatility was a destabilizing factor that increased the fear of the investors. There were an August 24, will be remembered as the worst day for the US exchanges in four years. There was a spectacular liquidation that led experts to wonder if the old bull cycle of six years finally ended. This chaos led investors to wonder whether the instability of financial markets would influence the decision of the US Federal Reserve to raise its key interest rate or not in September.

Moreover, the Canadian stocks plunged deeply into the negative in August, the month which was marked by fears of recession and deteriorating global economic conditions.

All the sectors ended in the red, but the energy, the financial services, the consumer discretionary, the industrial, and health products lost more than the others. The financial services sector also registered heavy losses in August; pessimism was also extended to bank stocks which weigh heavily enough in this sector.

At the time of writing, experts believed that the bank shares had lost about 5. The risks for banks are, first, that the depressed sector of the energy does make them undergo substantial loan losses and, second, the deterioration of Canadian economy discourages individuals to borrow if they fear for employment and the labor market in general. On the other hand, Tonnelier showed that the stock market shocks, until relatively disconnected from the Chinese real economy could end up affecting the latter, further exacerbating a little slower growth which weakened its, Asian, American and European but also, first and foremost Germany trading partners.