Indian philosophy Atman Brahman Doctrine Vedic Hindu Metaphysics relationships
This article explains the Hindu concepts of Atman, Dharma, Varna, Karma, Samsara, Purushartha, Moksha, Brahman, Bhagavan and Ishvara. Accessibility links Hindus generally believe that dharma was revealed in the Vedas This text, set before the great battle of the Mahabharata, depicts the hero. When the doctrine of the identity of atman (the self) and brahman (the Absolute) of the relationship between the human soul (atman) and the supreme being . Among the texts inspired by the Vedas are the Dharma-sutras, or “manuals on. Shankara Indian philosophy - the Atman which is Brahman relationships. texts next in antiquity dating from circa B.C. The Upanishads uphold views that.
The preoccupation with the liturgy gave rise to scholarly disciplinesalso called Vedangas, that were part of Vedic erudition.
There were six such fields: The texts constituting the Kalpa-sutras collections of aphorisms on the mode of ritual performance are of special importance.
The composition of these texts was begun about bce by Brahmans belonging to the ritual schools shakhaseach of which was attached to a particular recension of one of the four Vedas. A complete Kalpa-sutra contains four principal components: Society was ritually stratified in the four classes, each of which had its own dharma law.Atman is Brahman: Nachiketas & the God of Death
The ideal life was constructed through sacraments in the course of numerous ceremonies, performed by the upper classes, that carried the individual from conception to cremation in a series of complex rites.
The Grihya-sutras show that in the popular religion of the time there were many minor deities who are rarely mentioned in the literature of the large-scale sacrifices but who were probably far more influential on the lives of most people than were the great Vedic gods. Their principal contents address the duties of people at different stages of life, or ashrama s studenthood, householdership, retirement, and renunciation ; dietary regulations; offenses and expiations; and the rights and duties of kings.
They also discuss purification rites, funerary ceremonies, forms of hospitality, and daily oblations, and they even mention juridical matters.
The most important of these texts are the sutras of Gautama, Baudhayana, and Apastamba.
Although the direct relationship is not clear, the contents of these works were further elaborated in the more systematic Dharma-shastras, which in turn became the basis of Hindu law. It deals with topics such as cosmogony, the definition of dharma, the sacramentsinitiation and Vedic study, the eight forms of marriage, hospitality and funerary rites, dietary lawspollution and purification, rules for women and wives, royal law, juridical matters, pious donations, rites of reparation, the doctrine of karma, the soul, and punishment in hell.
- Ātman (Hinduism)
- The Upaniṣads
Law in the juridical sense is thus completely embedded in religious law and practice. The framework is provided by the model of the four-class society.
Hinduism - The Upanishads | sport-statistik.info
The influence of the Dharma-shastra of Manu has been enormous, as it provided Hindu society with the basis for its practical morality. Second to Manu is the Dharma-shastra of Yajnavalkya; its 1, stanzas are distributed under the three headings of good conduct, law, and expiation.
Because kings often transferred the revenues of villages or groups of villages to Brahmans, either singly or in corporate groups, the status and wealth of the priestly class rose steadily.
Living in the settlements called agraharas, the Brahmans were encouraged to devote themselves to the study of the Vedas and the subsidiary studies associated with them, but many Brahmans also developed the sciences of the period, such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine, while others cultivated literature. The Smriti texts have had considerable influence on orthodox Hindus, and Hindu family law was based on them. Although there is evidence of divorce in early Indian history, by the Gupta period marriage was solemnized by lengthy sacred rites and was virtually indissoluble.
From the 6th century ce onward, such occurrences became more frequent, though still quite rare, in certain parts of India, particularly in Rajasthan. Epics and Puranas During the centuries immediately preceding and following the beginning of the Common Era, the recension of the two great Sanskrit epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, took shape out of existing heroic epic storiesmythologyphilosophy, and above all the discussion of the problem of dharma.
Much of the material in the epics dates far back into the Vedic period, while the rest continued to be added until well into the medieval period.
It is conventional, however, to date the more or less final recension of the Sanskrit texts of the epics to the period from bce to ce.
Apart from their influence as Sanskrit texts, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have made an impact in South and Southeast Asiawhere their stories have been continually retold in vernacular and oral versions, and their influence on Indian and Southeast Asian art has been profound.
Even today the epic stories and tales are part of the early education of all Hindus. Ramasami beginning in Ramayana translationLearn about a project to create a translation in contemporary English of the Indian epic poem the Ramayana. Displayed by permission of The Regents of the University of California. Rama is deprived of the kingdom to which he is heir and is exiled to the forest with his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana.
While there, Sita is abducted by Ravanathe demon king of Lanka. In their search for Sita, the brothers ally themselves with a monkey king whose general, the monkey god Hanumanfinds Sita in Lanka. A cosmic battle ensues; Ravana is defeated, and Sita is rescued. When Rama is restored to his kingdom, the populace casts doubt on whether Sita remained chaste while a captive. To reassure them, Rama banishes Sita to a hermitage, where she bears him two sons; eventually she reenters the earth from which she had been born.
Rama and Sita set the ideal of conjugal love, and Rama and Lakshmana represent perfect fraternal love. Everything in the epic is designed for harmony, which after being disrupted is at last regained. Rama and Lakshmana attended by Hanuman in the forest, detail of relief inspired by the Ramayana, from Nacna Kuthara, Madhya Pradesh, 5th century ce. Chandra The Ramayana identifies Rama as another incarnation of Vishnu and remains the principal source for the worship of Rama.
Though not as long as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana contains a great deal of religious material in the form of mythsstories of great sages, and accounts of exemplary human behaviour.
Although Hindus consider Rama to be the epitome of dharma, many passages from the epic seem inconsistent with this status and have provoked debate through the centuries. The battle eventually leads to the destruction of the entire clan, save for one survivor who continues the dynasty.
As each of the heroes is the son of a god DharmaVayu, Indraand the Ashvins, respectivelythe epic is deeply infused with religious implications.
Hindus regard the Mahabharata as a compendium of dharma, and many passages in it debate dilemmas posed by dharma. Apart from the Bhagavadgita part of book 6much of the didactic material is found in the Book of the Forest book 3in which sages teach the exiled heroes, and in the Book of Peace book 12in which the wise Bhishma expounds on religious and moral matters.
The Best Upanishads Quotes
The Vedic gods lost importance in these texts and survive as figures of folklore. Prajapati of the Upanishads is popularly personified as the god Brahmawho creates all classes of beings and dispenses benefits.
Only a competent teacher, through direct experience, can reveal to the qualified student the true significance of the Vedas and the fullness of their absolutely consistent truth. The Upanishads describe Brahman as having two aspects: Brahman qualified by limiting conditions Saguna Brahman The ultimate Brahman is devoid of attributes. The entire phenomenal universe is subject to the categories of space, time, and causation; but Brahman, the Supreme Reality, is beyond. In contrast with phenomenal objects, Brahman is not in space but is spaceless.
Brahman is not in time but is timeless. Brahman is not subject to causality but independent of the causal chain.
That which cannot be expressed by speech, but by which speech is expressed—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship.
That which cannot be apprehended by the mind, but by which, they say, the mind is apprehended—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship.
That which cannot be perceived by the eye, but by which the eye is perceived—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship. That which cannot he heard by the ear, but by which the hearing is perceived—That alone know as Brahman and not that which people here worship.
Brahman is the essence of the eye ' the Eye of the eye', 'the Ear of the ear' the mind etc. Brahman — Eternal, Infinite, Unconditioned — cannot be made an object of material, limited and finite senses. The speech cannot define Brahman.