Refractive index of sucrose solutions, Refractive indices of sucrose solutions at 20 °C, nm. concentration % w/w, n. , DENSITY AND REFRACTIVE INDEX OF SOLUTIONS OF SUCROSE AND GLYCINE The relationship between refractive index and specific gravity of aaueous. Refractive Indices of Sucrose-Water Solutions in the Range from 24 to 53% Sucrose. D. F. Charles. Anal. Chem., , 37 (3), pp – DOI: /.
In addition, deionized water as solvent, locally produced sugar and soft drink beverages Pepsi, Coca, 7up, Sprite, Mirind and Fanta were used as our sample. Calibration curve developed from the graph of refractive index versus the concentration of the solution. Numerical procedure of fitting the experimental data was carried out by linear curve fitting using origin 8 software.
Refractive index - Wikipedia
A theory and method for derivation of refractive index have been discussed elsewhere [ 1 - 25 ]. The angle of incidence is responsible for deviation produced in the path of light beam. A monochromatic source of light Red, Green Diode laser and He-Ne laser was allowed to fall at angle of incident on the face of the liquid prism and the angle of minimum deviation was determined for each laser light.
During the measurement the solutions were filtered before pouring into the hollow prism. The hollow prism was also rinsed carefully after every measurement.
Each measurement has taken three times. Experimental set up for the measurements of angle of minimum deviation using prism spectrometer.
Methods of measuring temperature dependent refractive The temperature dependent refractive indices of the solution measured at the temperatures The solutions were heated using magnetic stirrer with hot plate and its temperature controlled by placing the thermometer inside a solution.
The angle of minimum deviation was measured at the interval of 5 K while the solution is cooling down from highest to lowest temperature. Calibration curve developed from the graph of refractive index versus temperature of the solution. Soft drink beverage solutions preparation In order to measure the sugar contents in soft drink beverages Pepsi, Coca, 7up, Sprite, Fanta and Mirinda each sample was poured into a beaker and stirred for minutes by magnetic stirrer to remove gases within the samples.
The refractive index of each solution was calculated from angle of minimum deviation using Equation 1. The sugar contents in soft drink beverages were determined using eqns. From experimental data we can find that RI of sugar solution increase linearly with the concentration. The difference in the slope value indicated the dependence of refractive index on the wavelength of laser light.
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Shows the refractive index versus concentrations of sugar solution using Red Diode, He-Ne and Green Diode laser in standard solutions. A comparison of our experimental results with the available literature data indicated that the results are quite similar with those previously reported by other authors [ 2 - 4 ].
In Table the last two columns shows the refractive index of sucrose solutions reported using Abbe refractometer [ 4 ] and Sodium lamp at the wavelength As indicated in Table 1 our data and the previously reported results using different techniques are quite consistent with deviation of the order of Figure 3 displays the residual of the RI at different concentration of sugar solutions.
This wave is typically a wave with the same frequency but shorter wavelength than the original, leading to a slowing of the wave's phase velocity. Most of the radiation from oscillating material charges will modify the incoming wave, changing its velocity. However, some net energy will be radiated in other directions or even at other frequencies see scattering. Depending on the relative phase of the original driving wave and the waves radiated by the charge motion, there are several possibilities: This is the normal refraction of transparent materials like glass or water, and corresponds to a refractive index which is real and greater than 1.
This is called "anomalous refraction", and is observed close to absorption lines typically in infrared spectrawith X-rays in ordinary materials, and with radio waves in Earth's ionosphere. It corresponds to a permittivity less than 1, which causes the refractive index to be also less than unity and the phase velocity of light greater than the speed of light in vacuum c note that the signal velocity is still less than c, as discussed above.
If the response is sufficiently strong and out-of-phase, the result is a negative value of permittivity and imaginary index of refraction, as observed in metals or plasma. This is light absorption in opaque materials and corresponds to an imaginary refractive index.
OSA | Refractive index of solutions at high concentrations
If the electrons emit a light wave which is in phase with the light wave shaking them, it will amplify the light wave. This is rare, but occurs in lasers due to stimulated emission.
It corresponds to an imaginary index of refraction, with the opposite sign to that of absorption. Dispersion[ edit ] Light of different colors has slightly different refractive indices in water and therefore shows up at different positions in the rainbow.
In a prism, dispersion causes different colors to refract at different angles, splitting white light into a rainbow of colors.
The variation of refractive index with wavelength for various glasses. The shaded zone indicates the range of visible light. Dispersion optics The refractive index of materials varies with the wavelength and frequency of light. Dispersion also causes the focal length of lenses to be wavelength dependent. This is a type of chromatic aberrationwhich often needs to be corrected for in imaging systems.
In regions of the spectrum where the material does not absorb light, the refractive index tends to decrease with increasing wavelength, and thus increase with frequency.