Introduction - Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth - NCBI Bookshelf
The NHANES includes components pertinent to physical fitness and a NHANES and data management systems have emerged, the link between fitness tests and of youth fitness components that are associated with health outcomes. this component is frequently included in fitness test batteries, its relationship to. Organizational Culture and Its Relationship with Hospital Performance in Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their and organizational culture can be used to explain why an organization focuses on processes or the external environment and relationships with outside entities. The actual tasks that keep the organization alive, maintain its standing with How does the management plan fit in with the mission and philosophy of the organization? This is the second reference in this section to consistency between the . Another is to be extremely careful to describe the roles and relationships when.
Outcomes-based Wellness Programs: An Example from the Real World
There are two indicators of this timing: Several measures of physical fitness have their own spurts, which have been documented more in boys than in girls Beunen and Malina, ; Beunen et al. Variation in fitness among youth has been classified as late, on time averageor early in skeletal age, age at menarche, and timing of peak height velocity Jones, ; Lefevre et al.
Differences in maturity are more marked for boys than for girls, although relevant data are not as extensive for girls Malina et al. The following four methods can be used to measure maturity. Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Three measurement methods are commonly used: Measurement of skeletal age requires a small radiation dose and expertise in assessing films Beunen et al.
Secondary Sex Characteristics Secondary sex characteristics include pubic hair and genitalia in boys, and breasts and pubic hair in girls. Privacy and cultural issues arise with this measure, although self-assessments increasingly are being used. Use of this measure also is limited to the pubertal period.
The criteria described by Tanner are most commonly used, whereby secondary sex characteristics are rated on five discrete-point scales stages from prepubertal to mature status superimposed upon a continuous process of sexual maturation. It is important to recognize that youth should not be grouped by developmental stage across chronological ages Beunen et al. Moreover, there are differences among white, African American, and Mexican American youth, with African Americans beginning pubertal maturation in advance of their Mexican American and white counterparts Chumlea et al.
Age at menarche and menarcheal status are an indicator of maturity in girls. As with pubertal stages, girls should be grouped by menarcheal status within each chronological age year Malina et al.
Somatic Maturation Somatic maturation is an after-the-fact indicator. It is defined as the age at the maximum rate of growth in height during the adolescent spurt peak height velocity and is an indicator of maturity timing. Estimation of age at peak height velocity requires longitudinal data spanning at least years around the spurt Beunen and Malina, ; Beunen et al. Noninvasive Indicators Two indicators of maturity status considered noninvasive have recently been used: The former is an indicator of status, while the latter is an indicator of timing.
The most accurate prediction equations for mature height require the age, height, and weight of the child and midparent height i. The prediction equations for maturity offset require age, height, weight, sitting height, and estimated leg length height minus sitting height, technically subischial length Mirwald et al.
Limitations of this measure are that it requires an additional measurement and a flat sitting surface and the fact that ethnic variation is a potential confounder Hamill et al.
It should also be noted that leg length has its adolescent growth spurt before sitting height Malina et al. Although the above measures have been used to assess various populations of athletes Cumming et al. Motor Skill The association between motor skill i.
However, a growing body of cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence demonstrates positive relationships between motor skill competence levels and multiple aspects of health-related fitness in youth. Given the lack of experimental data, the literature does not provide adequate support for a recommendation to include a motor skill measure in a national youth fitness test battery.
Further research is needed to examine the relationships between the development of motor skill and health-related fitness performance and health outcomes. Motor Skill and Health-Related Fitness Performance Children do not develop motor skill through maturation alone, but also through context-specific engagement in physical activity Logan et al. Without intervention or formal instruction, such as physical education, youth with lower levels of motor coordination and control i.
However, the use of multiple types of motor skill assessments i. Additionally, issues related to a lack of developmental validity, the sensitivity and skill-level discrimination capabilities of various assessments, and a lack of consensus on how motor skill versus health-related fitness is defined need to be addressed in future research Fisher et al.
Using multivariate regression, explained variance in either individual or composite measures of fitness by multiple individual or composite motor skill assessments has ranged from 0 to 79 percent Barnett et al.
With the exception of one quasi-experimental study Matvienko and Ahrabi-Fard, and three longitudinal studies Barnett et al. Sample sizes varied from to 2, in all studies except those of Matvienko and Ahrabi-Fard and Hands and colleagueswhich included only 90 and 19 subjects, respectively.
It is important to note that the strength of relationships generally increases across age in both males and females. Results of recent cross-sectional and longitudinal research examining associations between motor skill competence levels and body weight status i.Periodization and Programming for Strength Power Sports, with Mike Stone and Meg Stone - sport-statistik.info
As body weight status may influence both motor skill and health-related fitness performance, it is difficult to identify a causal pathway for these relationships. These data indirectly support the hypothesis of Stodden and colleagues that the development of motor skills may promote improvements in body weight status, physical activity, and health-related physical fitness through the dynamic and reciprocal relationships that occur among these variables across childhood.
As mentioned previously, there is a need for long-term experimental studies to better understand the impact of motor skill development on body weight status and various aspects of health-related fitness. It has been suggested that associations between cardiorespiratory endurance and fundamental motor skills are indirectly related to developmental trajectories of motor skill development, are reciprocal in nature Barnett et al.
Associations between motor skill i. This link supports the notion that motor skill development influences these variables Myer et al. Although most of the data reported above were derived from correlational or prospective longitudinal studies, the increasing relationship strength trajectories between motor skill and fitness levels across ages suggest the need for additional research on the relationship trajectories between motor skill development and health outcomes.
The committee could identify only a few studies examining the relationship between motor skill and any health outcomes.
Motor Skill and Health Outcomes A small body of research cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicates that low motor skill competence is associated with poor bone health in youth Anliker et al.
However, these relationships also can be attributed to lean mass Anliker et al. Weaker associations have been demonstrated with other skill-related tests Page 64 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Overall, the proposed synergistic relationships and mechanisms involving skill development and muscle strength, power, and endurance make it difficult to delineate the contributions of skill, strength, and power to bone health see Chapter 6 for a discussion of the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and bone mineral density.
Even fewer studies have examined the relationship between any aspect of motor skill and cardiovascular or metabolic health outcomes in youth. Many of these studies, however, involved participants with mental or associated cognitive, motor, emotional, or behavioral developmental disorders Emck et al.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Thus, these data may not be representative for normal populations of children. Influence of Amount of Practice Time on Fitness Testing Performance Evidence for the effects of practice on performance on specific health-related physical fitness tests i. The relevant literature on the relationship between motor learning and development and general skill learning indicates that adequate learning and completion of a fitness test depend on many factors, including experience, instruction, feedback, cognitive capabilities, motivation, and the complexity of the test Farpour-Lambert and Blimkie, ; Raudsepp and Pall, For example, although the committee found no evidence to support the influence of socioeconomic status on test selection, delivery, or interpretation, one could hypothesize possible limitations due to lack of equipment if a school had a suboptimal built environment e.
Previous youth fitness surveys in the United States have failed to consider these factors see Malina, The purpose of this blog is to demonstrate how biometric data can be successfully integrated into an incentive strategy. Recent clarifications, designed to help employers better understand how to integrate incentive strategies into a wellness program, have done nothing but scare employers to the point of immobilization.
Nobody wants to do anything that might get them in trouble with the law so more companies are suffering from program paralysis by legal analysis. Employers have been scared away from discussing outcomes-based incentives altogether but this does not have to be the case.
Outcomes-based wellness incentive programs can be a fun and effective part of every wellness program. Yes, there are some basic guidelines, such as be nice to people, use carrots instead of sticks to motivate people, and make participation in your wellness program voluntary.
Outcomes-based Wellness Programs
Once you start forcing people to comply or punishing them because of non-compliance, morale will suffer, health will not improve, and it is very unlikely that healthcare costs will be reduced. Here are the basic rules that any wellness program should follow: Let me shed a little additional light on one of these rules. WellSteps has hundreds of clients using our wellness solutions and incentive programs. This is just not what nice people do!
It includes activities that are selected by the wellness coordinator and the wellness committee within each company. Every plan is customized to each particular company.