Lawrence Graver - Beckett Waiting for Godot - A Student Guide | Lis Pustyni - sport-statistik.info
The Lucky-Pozzo relation in Beckett's Waiting for Godot is a treatment of the master-slave relationship, which has always intrigued the Western. Guy Burgess (Lucky) and Cornell S John (Pozzo) in Waiting for Godot . on antigone Endgame by Samuel Beckett: Critical Analysis The Endgame falls into the. When Susan Sontag staged Waiting for Godot in besieged Sarajevo in , several tireless support and guidance, and Ingrid Nielsen, for her advice and always .. Lucky the City and Pozzo the Aggressor. .. Perloff looks into the connection between Beckett's hardships during the war and writing.
Pozzo then rambles nostalgically but vaguely about his relationship with Lucky over the years, before offering Vladimir and Estragon some compensation for their company.
Estragon begins to beg for money when Pozzo instead suggests that Lucky can "dance" and "think" for their entertainment. Lucky's dance, "the Net", is clumsy and shuffling; Lucky's "thinking" is a long-winded and disjointed monologue —it is the first and only time that Lucky speaks. Pozzo then has Lucky pack up his bags, and they hastily leave. Vladimir and Estragon, alone again, reflect on whether they met Pozzo and Lucky before. A boy then arrives, purporting to be a messenger sent from Godot to tell the pair that Godot will not be coming that evening "but surely tomorrow".
After the boy departs, the moon appears, and the two men verbally agree to leave and find shelter for the night, but they merely stand without moving. Act II[ edit ] It is daytime again and Vladimir begins singing a recursive round about the death of a dog, but twice forgets the lyrics as he sings.
Vladimir comments that the formerly bare tree now has leaves and tries to confirm his recollections of yesterday against Estragon's extremely vague, unreliable memory.
Vladimir then triumphantly produces evidence of the previous day's events by showing Estragon the wound from when Lucky kicked him. Noticing Estragon's barefootedness, they also discover his previously forsaken boots nearby, which Estragon insists are not his, although they fit him perfectly.
With no carrots left, Vladimir is turned down in offering Estragon a turnip or a radish. He then sings Estragon to sleep with a lullaby before noticing further evidence to confirm his memory: Lucky's hat still lies on the ground.
This leads to his waking Estragon and involving him in a frenetic hat-swapping scene. The two then wait again for Godot, while distracting themselves by playfully imitating Pozzo and Lucky, firing insults at each other and then making up, and attempting some fitness routines—all of which fail miserably and end quickly.
Suddenly, Pozzo and Lucky reappear, but the rope is much shorter than during their last visit, and Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being controlled by him. As they arrive, Pozzo trips over Lucky and they together fall into a motionless heap. Estragon sees an opportunity to exact revenge on Lucky for kicking him earlier. The issue is debated lengthily until Pozzo shocks the pair by revealing that he is now blind and Lucky is now mute. Pozzo further claims to have lost all sense of time, and assures the others that he cannot remember meeting them before, but also does not expect to recall today's events tomorrow.
His commanding arrogance from yesterday appears to have been replaced by humility and insight. His parting words—which Vladimir expands upon later—are ones of utter despair. Alone, Vladimir is encountered by apparently the same boy from yesterday, though Vladimir wonders whether he might be the other boy's brother. This time, Vladimir begins consciously realising the circular nature of his experiences: Vladimir seems to reach a moment of revelation before furiously chasing the boy away, demanding that he be recognised the next time they meet.
Estragon awakes and pulls his boots off again.
PsyArt: An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts
He and Vladimir consider hanging themselves once more, but when they test the strength of Estragon's belt hoping to use it as a nooseit breaks and Estragon's trousers fall down.
They resolve tomorrow to bring a more suitable piece of rope and, if Godot fails to arrive, to commit suicide at last. Again, they decide to clear out for the night, but, again, neither of them makes any attempt to move. Characters[ edit ] Beckett refrained from elaborating on the characters beyond what he had written in the play. He once recalled that when Sir Ralph Richardson "wanted the low-down on Pozzo, his home address and curriculum vitaeand seemed to make the forthcoming of this and similar information the condition of his condescending to illustrate the part of Vladimir I told him that all I knew about Pozzo was in the text, that if I had known more I would have put it in the text, and that was true also of the other characters.
They are never referred to as tramps in the text, though are often performed in such costumes on stage. When told by Vladimir that he should have been a poet, Estragon says he was, gestures to his rags, and asks if it were not obvious. There are no physical descriptions of either of the two characters; however, the text indicates that Vladimir is possibly the heavier of the pair.
The bowlers and other broadly comic aspects of their personas have reminded modern audiences of Laurel and Hardywho occasionally played tramps in their films.
Comedy and the Movies. Estragon "belongs to the stone",  preoccupied with mundane things, what he can get to eat and how to ease his physical aches and pains; he is direct, intuitive.
He finds it hard to remember but can recall certain things when prompted, e. He continually forgets, Vladimir continually reminds him; between them they pass the time. Vladimir's life is not without its discomforts too but he is the more resilient of the pair. While the two characters are temperamentally opposite, with their differing responses to a situation, they are both essential as demonstrated in the way Vladimir's metaphysical musings were balanced by Estragon's physical demands.
This became "Adam" in the American edition. Beckett's only explanation was that he was "fed up with Catullus". What's more, since the second act is a subtly different reprise of the first, he has written a play in which nothing happens, twice.
In the first stage production, which Beckett oversaw, both are "more shabby-genteel than ragged Vladimir at least is capable of being scandalised She explained how it begins with a trembling, which gets more and more noticeable, until later the patient can no longer speak without the voice shaking. So I said, 'That sounds exactly what I need. As such, since the first appearance of the duo, the true slave had always been Pozzo. His rhetoric has been learned by rote.
Pozzo's "party piece" on the sky is a clear example: Little is learned about Pozzo besides the fact that he is on his way to the fair to sell his slave, Lucky.
He presents himself very much as the Ascendancy landlord, bullying and conceited. His pipe is made by Kapp and PetersonDublin's best-known tobacconists their slogan was "The thinking man's pipe" which he refers to as a " briar " but which Estragon calls a " dudeen " emphasising the differences in their social standing.
He confesses to a poor memory but it is more a result of an abiding self-absorption. That's why he overdoes things These were things Beckett said, psychological terms he used. Lucky is the absolutely subservient slave of Pozzo and he unquestioningly does his every bidding with "dog-like devotion".
Lucky speaks only once in the play and it is a result of Pozzo's order to "think" for Estragon and Vladimir. Pozzo and Lucky have been together for sixty years and, in that time, their relationship has deteriorated. Lucky has always been the intellectually superior but now, with age, he has become an object of contempt: Despite his horrid treatment at Pozzo's hand however, Lucky remains completely faithful to him.
Even in the second act when Pozzo has inexplicably gone blind, and needs to be led by Lucky rather than driving him as he had done before, Lucky remains faithful and has not tried to run away; they are clearly bound together by more than a piece of rope in the same way that Didi and Gogo are "[t]ied to Godot".
Beckett struggled to retain the French atmosphere as much as possible, so that he delegated all the English names and places to Lucky, whose own name, he thought, suggested such a correlation.
Lucky's Bones: A Sense of Starvation in Watt, Waiting for Godot, and Oliver Twist
The boy in Act I, a local lad, assures Vladimir that this is the first time he has seen him. He says he was not there the previous day. He confirms he works for Mr. Godot as a goatherd. His brother, whom Godot beats, is a shepherd. Godot feeds both of them and allows them to sleep in his hayloft.
The boy in Act II also assures Vladimir that it was not he who called upon them the day before.
He insists that this too is his first visit. When Vladimir asks what Godot does the boy tells him, "He does nothing, sir. This boy also has a brother who it seems is sick but there is no clear evidence to suggest that his brother is the boy that came in Act I or the one who came the day before that.
In the first Act, the boy, despite arriving while Pozzo and Lucky are still about, does not announce himself until after Pozzo and Lucky leave, saying to Vladimir and Estragon that he waited for the other two to leave out of fear of the two men and of Pozzo's whip; the boy does not arrive early enough in Act II to see either Lucky or Pozzo.
In both Acts, the boy seems hesitant to speak very much, saying mostly "Yes Sir" or "No Sir", and winds up exiting by running away. Godot[ edit ] The identity of Godot has been the subject of much debate. It is just implied in the text, but it's not true. The first is that because feet are a recurring theme in the play, Beckett has said the title was suggested to him by the slang French term for boot: This seemed to disappoint him greatly.
But you must remember — I wrote the play in French, and if I did have that meaning in my mind, it was somewhere in my unconscious and I was not overtly aware of it. However, "Beckett has often stressed the strong unconscious impulses that partly control his writing; he has even spoken of being 'in a trance ' when he writes.
Unlike elsewhere in Beckett's work, no bicycle appears in this play, but Hugh Kenner in his essay "The Cartesian Centaur"  reports that Beckett once, when asked about the meaning of Godot, mentioned "a veteran racing cyclist, bald, a 'stayer', recurrent placeman in town-to-town and national championships, Christian name elusive, surname Godeau, pronounced, of course, no differently from Godot.
Beckett himself said the emphasis should be on the first syllable, and that the North American pronunciation is a mistake. Borchardt checked with Beckett's nephew, Edward, who told him his uncle pronounced it that way as well.
Two men are waiting on a country road by a tree. The men are of unspecified origin, though it is clear that they are not English by nationality since they refer to currency as francsand tell derisive jokes about the English — and in English-language productions the pair are traditionally played with Irish accents. The script calls for Estragon to sit on a low mound but in practice—as in Beckett's own German production—this is usually a stone.
In the first act the tree is bare. In the second, a few leaves have appeared despite the script specifying that it is the next day. The minimal description calls to mind "the idea of the lieu vague, a location which should not be particularised".
In Act I, Vladimir turns toward the auditorium and describes it as a bog. In the Cackon country! Interpretations[ edit ] "Because the play is so stripped down, so elemental, it invites all kinds of social and political and religious interpretation", wrote Normand Berlin in a tribute to the play in Autumn"with Beckett himself placed in different schools of thought, different movements and 'ism's.
The attempts to pin him down have not been successful, but the desire to do so is natural when we encounter a writer whose minimalist art reaches for bedrock reality. There are ritualistic aspects and elements taken directly from vaudeville  and there is a danger in making more of these than what they are: The play "exploits several archetypal forms and situations, all of which lend themselves to both comedy and pathos. Of course you use it. As far back ashe remarked, "Why people have to complicate a thing so simple I can't make out.
Although he had overseen many productions, this was the first time that he had taken complete control. Walter Asmus was his conscientious young assistant director. The production was not naturalistic. Beckett explained, It is a game, everything is a game. When all four of them are lying on the ground, that cannot be handled naturalistically. That has got to be done artificially, balletically.
So deep and destructive is Knott's narcissism that even with their roles reversed he denies Watt the opportunity to experience the emotional closeness that might help his servant begin to feel an internal sense of containment and holding--the dining times are constructed such that "Watt never saw Mr Knott, never never saw Mr Knott at mealtime" Watt is thus deprived of the love, resonance, and the attunement that might accompany the sharing of the meal, and for Knott the primary intimacy of the "nursing couple" is lost and robbed of its affective intensity by his self-enclosure and his unwillingness to engage another in intimacy and sharing.
The effect of Watt's failure to repair his sense of a disconnected internal nursing relationship is not only his fragmentation and despairing depression, but also a deeply repressed rage which he enacts in a reversal after he is required to leave the house of Knott: During his stay in the house of Knott, Watt learns about a previous servant named Mary, who is long departed, and who had been employed as a parlour maid.
Like Watt himself she was but one in a long series of workers who are drawn into service for Knott only to be discarded as others come along to take their places. The atmosphere of emotional absence that permeates the house has a bad effect on Mary: The ambiance of the house is one of severe affective absence and Mary responds to it by becoming psychically disorganized as her conscious sense of herself fades along with her sense of purpose, and like her duster she begins to dissolve into the background greyness.
May in Footfalls or the heroine of Rockabywho are also representatives of the "lost heart of the self" Guntrip, Mary is propped up in a kind of stupor against one of the walls in which this wretched edifice abounds, her long greasy hair framing in its cowl of scrofulous mats a face where pallor, languor, hunger, acne, recent dirt, immemorial chagrin seemed to dispute the mastery She has entered a near catatonic state--she has a "dreaming face," her body acts as an automated feeding machine as her hands flash "to and fro," like "piston rods" 55 from a food sack to her mouth, while not a muscle stirs that is not intimately involved in a process of self-nurturing which occupies her every waking hour.
That Mary's face still reflects her hunger is not surprising since the food she ingests is but a symbolic replacement for the emotional responsiveness and love that she really craves, and which are unavailable from Knott.
Guntrip describes such a "love-hunger" in one of his patients, a woman, who felt compelled to eat whenever her husband came into the house, and who came to realize that she was "hungry for him" and his love but could not show it.
He reports a dream of the patient in which 'she was eating an enormous meal and just went on endlessly. She is getting as much as she can inside her before it is taken away. A suffered from a form of binge eating that had its roots in childhood neglect and deprivation. She had terrible difficulty "thinking" independently and generally would position herself to act as a mirror for the other's desire.
She experienced my talking to her as nurturing and filling, and she stated that the content was less important than the containing function Bion, that my words provided her.
As an adult she used the television as a hypnotic distraction as she lay on the couch covered by her favourite duvet bingeing on chocolates.
She described how she felt dissociated from her eating as if her body was an automaton with her arms, hands, and mouth working in synchrony to feed her while she focused her attention on television talk shows.
These programmes provided a sense of companionship since they dealt with others like herself who were suffering and despairing, and she eventually saw her bingeing as a form of self soothing that allowed her to "take care of herself" in a way she felt that she had not experienced as an infant.
Her mother had had a post-partum depression and abandoned her to an incapacitated grandmother with the result that Ms A's feedings were infrequent and unpredictable. At eight years of age she was again abandoned to a hospital for a fairly serious illness, and she remembered the depressive anxiety which accompanied her feeling unloved and forgotten.
Her only visitors were a kind and elderly aunt and uncle who brought her an endless supply of candy which she remembered eating ravishingly, not stopping until they were all consumed, feeling calmed by her feeding, but also anxious lest the candy and the kindly couple be taken away before she finished filling her empty self. Thus began a lifelong coping mechanism in which she was able to tolerate unbearable feelings of abandonment and loneliness by continually and symbolically repairing her early and severe sense of primary maternal absence.
Like Mary this patient uses bingeing behaviour as a means to counter depression, and her dissociative state during her binges is a direct echo of Mary's "automatic" behavior, which reflects an attempt to repair the rupture in her internal world.
The patient would delay the feeding as long as possible, both to keep her mother with her but also to express her rage at being abandoned, and her own adult bingeing mimicked the automatic and repetitive fashion in which her mother would nurture her on these occasions.
For Mary, as for Ms. A, a ruptured internal nursing relationship leads to somatisized enactments of inner despair, as she tries to symbolically reconnect to a loving mother, and she represents an underlying part of the emerging self that is despairing and withdrawn.
Lucky's bones Waiting for Godot, a "tragicomedy" in two acts, was first performed in Paris inand quickly became an international success that established Beckett as a major figure in 20th century literature. Befitting this status, the play has received an enormous amount of critical attention. Early commentators viewed the play in existentialist terms to such a degree that it became almost synonymous with that movement Kiesenhofer, Others have viewed the play in political terms; Mittenzweifor example, presents a Marxist perspective, and there have been a wide variety of religious readings: Zeifman highlights the sense of suffering and its connection to the divinity, and Cohn sees Beckett as mocking classical Christian traditions.
Anders feels that the play is a parable, and that this is something that has reached a general consensus. Most criticism of the play views it in this way, as representative of certain abstract features of the human condition, or as a specific allegory.
In the play, two tramps, Vladimir and Estragon, wait upon a barren stage for Mr. Godot with whom they apparently have a rendezvous. Save for a long and fragmented monologue in the first act Lucky does not speak, and in this monologue Lucky bemoans the loss of recognition by a "personal God" and describes his descent into a psychotic state of abandonment depression. This "personal God" can be read as a metaphorical description of an early maternal object, represented by Pozzo, with whom the primary emotional bond has been ruptured, as Lucky, representative of an infantile "lost heart of the self," descends into the hell of a dead internal "abode of stones" in "the deeps the great cold" The tramps, alone on stage at the end of each act, state their intention to leave but do not move, as they are tied to Godot as an allencompassing maternal figure.
The play therefore can be read as a depiction of the internal experience of the absence of early maternal love and nurturing, and this is developed in more detail in the clear depiction of maternal envy and neglect that are manifested in the various character relations of the play.
The play can be viewed in a more direct manner, examining it as an exposition of certain feeling-states within an emerging self that are actually manifested in the character relations, imagery, and so forth. I suggest that it reflects an entirely internal world of an underlying emerging-self struggling to integrate in the face of disintegration anxieties triggered by separation from a loving primary object Keller, Nealon has written that "In Waiting for Godot, Beckett shows us that Vladimir and Estragon are trapped by their modernist nostalgia for legitimation in Godot: In view of my general psychoanalytic perspective this statement is not entirely correct.
I see the play as depicting a nostalgia for something that is absolutely required by the self of which Vladimir and Estragon are manifestationswhich is not any sort of legitimacy which would imply a type of "false self" compliancebut a secure internal sense of love.