Swimming pool - Wikipedia
Deadline to register for Saturday's dolphins swim meet on Tuesday at pm. $ per cap by cash or check made payable to Council Rock Swim Club. KU swim club is a co-ed, student-run, competitive swim team that welcomes swimmers and divers of all levels of capabilities. KUSC is open to all KU students . swimming pool and starting blocks used for the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia. A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain.
A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high. Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area.
This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural uncontrolled heat geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats.
Ocean pools[ edit ] An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide. This continued a pre-European tradition of bathing in rockpools with many of the current sites being expanded from sites used by Aboriginal Australians or early European settlers.
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Bathing in these pools provided security against both rough surf and sea life. There were often separate pools for women and men, or the pool was open to the sexes at different times with a break for bathers to climb in without fear of observation by the other sex. A variation was the later development of sea- or harbour-side pools that circulated sea water using pumps. A pool of this type was the training ground for Australian Olympian Dawn Fraser. Despite the development of chlorinated and heated pools, ocean baths remain a popular form of recreation in New South Wales.
Infinity pools[ edit ] Infinity pool An infinity edge pool also named negative edge or vanishing edge pool is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to "infinity". Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water.
The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon is not a limiting factor. They have recently been growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional swimming pools.
In essence, natural pools seek to recreate swimming holes and swimmable lakes, the environment where people feel safe swimming in a non-polluted, healthy, and ecologically balanced body of water. Water in natural pools has many desirable characteristics. For example, red eyes, dried-out skin and hair, and bleached bathing suits associated with overly chlorinated water are naturally absent in natural pools. Zero-entry swimming pools[ edit ] A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach.
As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems e. Indoor Pools[ edit ] Indoor pools are located inside, under a roof and insulated by at least three walls. Built for the purpose of year-round swimming or training, they are found in all climate types. Since the pool room is insulated, it is less likely the heat will escape; making it less expensive to heat than an outdoor pool where the heat will escape.
In addition to drainage and automatic pool covers, there are a number of ways to remove humidity in the air that is present with any wet indoor environment. Efficient dehumidification in the indoor pool environment prevents structural damage, lowers energy costs in addition to improving the room's climate to make it a comfortable swimming environment. Other uses[ edit ] An astronaut prepares to descend into a swimming pool as part of a training exercise.
Swimming pools are also used for events such as synchronized swimmingwater polocanoe polo and underwater sports such as underwater hockeyunderwater rugbyfinswimming and sport diving as well as for teaching divinglifesaving and scuba diving techniques. They have also been used for specialist tasks such as teaching water- ditching survival techniques for aircraft and submarine crews and astronaut training. Round-cornered, irregular swimming pools, such as the Nude Bowlwere drained of water and used for vertical skateboarding.
Swimming pool sanitation Levels of bacteria and viruses in swimming pool water must be kept low to prevent the spread of diseases and pathogens. Bacteria, algae and insect larvae can enter the pool if water is not properly sanitized. Pumps, mechanical sand filtersand disinfectants are often used to sanitise the water.
Chemical disinfectants, such as chlorine usually as a hypochlorite salt, such as calcium hypochlorite and bromineare commonly used to kill pathogens. If not properly maintained, chemical sanitation can produce high levels of disinfection byproducts. Sanitized swimming pool water can theoretically appear green if a certain amount of iron salts or copper chloride are present in the water.
Hot tubs were found to have higher readings of the marker. While urine itself is sterile, its degradation products may lead to asthma. Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the amount of chemicals chlorine, etc. Though a cover decreases the total amount of solar heat absorbed by the pool, the cover eliminates heat loss due to evaporation and reduces heat loss at night through its insulating properties.
Most swimming pool heat loss is through evaporation. A transparent bubble cover is the most effective, as it allows the largest amount of solar flux into the pool itself. Thermal bubble covers are lightweight UV -stabilized floating covers designed to minimize heat loss on heated swimming pools. Typically they are only fitted in spring and fall autumn when the temperature difference between pool water and air temperature is greatest.
Bubble covers are typically applied and removed by being rolled up on a device fitted to one side of the pool see illustration. Covers fall apart after four or five years due to sun exposure, overheating in the sun while off the pool, and chlorine attacking the plastic.
Bubble covers should be removed during super chlorination. A vinyl cover absorbs more sunlight directly, allowing temperature to rise faster, but ultimately prevents the pool from reaching as high a temperature as a clear cover. Insulated vinyl covers are also available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.
This is an effort to conserve water, as much water evaporates and transpires. An alternative to a continuous sheet of pool covering is multiple floating disks which are deployed and removed disk by disk. They cover most of the surface of the pool and offer evaporation reduction similar to continuous covers. Various types are available, for example opaque for UV resistance and possible reduced algal growthtransparent for estheticsheavy and solid for wind resistancelight and inflatable for ease of handling.
Liquid covers Liquid covers are also an option. They use a microscopically thin layer of liquid such as cetyl alcohol that sits on the water surface and reduces evaporation, which is one of the major sources of heat loss as well as water loss. The liquid must be replenished regularly monthly or moreand may not be effective in windy areas since the wind will disperse the thin layer.
Safety covers These covers are typically attached all winter, by hooked bungee cords or hooked springs connected to the pool deck, and are usually made in a variety of materials including coated or laminated vinyl or polypropylene mesh. They are custom designed to stop leaf debris from entering the pool but more importantly they also provide safety for animals and small children when designed and installed properly. The custom safety cover was invented in by Fred Meyer Jr.
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Today covers are made to meet ASTM safety barrier standards and have kept animals, people and even large vehicles out of the pool. Pool cover automation[ edit ] Automatic pool cover A pool cover can be either manually, semi-automatically, or automatically operated. Manual covers can be folded and stored in an off site location. Pool cover reels can also be used to help manually roll up the pool cover.
The reel, usually on wheels, can be rolled in or out of place. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system. They use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts. Automatic covers have permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button.
They are the most expensive option, but are also the most convenient. These reels can be run from either an external motor requiring a pit to be dug beside the pool or using an internal motor that spins the reel. Some pool covers fit into tracks along the sides of the pool. This prevents anything or anybody from getting into the pool.
They even support the weight of several people. They can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically.
Safety covers may be required by inspectors for public pools. This varies greatly between in-ground and above-ground pools. By taking steps to properly secure the pool, it lessens the likelihood that the superstructure will be damaged or compromised by freezing water. An above-ground pool should also be closed, so that ice does not drag down the pool wall, collapsing its structure. The plumbing is sealed with air, typically with rubber plugs, to prevent cracking from freezing water.
The pool is typically covered to prevent leaves and other debris from falling in. The cover is attached to the pool typically using a stretch cord, similar to a bungee cord and hooks fitted into the pool surround. The skimmer is closed off or a floating device is placed into it to prevent it from completely freezing and cracking. Floating objects such as life rings or basketballs can be placed in the pool to avoid its freezing under the cover.
Sand or DE filters must be backwashed, with the main drain plug removed and all water drained out. Drain plugs on the pool filter are removed after the filter has been cleaned. The pool pump motor is taken under cover. Winter chemicals are added to keep the pool clean. The innovation of a composite construction of fibreglass, with an epoxy coating and porcelain ceramic tiles has led to the Pre-form, Composite-type with significant advantages over older methods; however, it also has increased sensitivity to metal staining.
In climates where there is no risk of freezing, closing down the pool for winter is not so important.
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Typically, the thermal cover is removed and stored. Winter sunlight can create an algae mess when a cover that has been left on all winter is removed. The pool is correctly pH -balanced and super-chlorinated. One part algaecide for every 50, parts of pool water should be added, and topped up each month. The pool should be filtered for one to two hours daily to keep the automated chlorination system active. Lifeguards are employed at most pools to execute water rescues and administer first aid as needed in order to reduce this risk.
Diving in shallow areas of a pool may also lead to significant head and neck injuries; diving, especially head-first diving, should be done in the deepest point of the pool, minimally 2. Pools also present a risk of death due to drowning, particularly in young children. In regions where residential pools are common, drowning is a major cause of childhood death.
As a precaution, many jurisdictions require that residential pools be enclosed with fencing to restrict unauthorized access. Many products exist, such as removable baby fences.
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