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Ocelots have been hunted since the ancient Aztec civilization. The highly prized, distinctive coat is an incentive to poachers. Their numbers. WATCH: Named for an Aztec God, the Axolotl is Critically Endangered. According to legend .. See the refugee babies born with nowhere to call home. See the. Many animals lived in the Aztec world, birds, snakes, deer, wild cats such as the ocelot and the jaguar, and so on. Each animal had a particular meaning and.
There are rock drawings made by the Hopi, Anasazi, and Pueblo all over the desert and chaparral regions. Jaguar skins are also treated as illegal contraband by the US government and otherwise by and large Americans have stopped wearing fur coats made of the pelts of spotted cats as citizens are aware of the international plight of big cats.
Unfortunately the cessation of hunting came too late to save the jaguar population from crashing and no kittens have been known to have been born on the other side of the Mexican-American border in generations. In and from on, hunting guides and wildlife officials in Arizona photographed and documented jaguars in the southern part of the state. One of them, called 'Macho B', had been previously photographed in in the area. The animal was later confirmed to be indeed the same male individual 'Macho B' that was photographed in Ice age fossils of the jaguar, dated between 40, and 11, years ago, have been discovered in the United States, including some at an important site as far north as Missouri.
Of these habitats, the jaguar much prefers dense forest;  the cat has lost range most rapidly in regions of drier habitat, such as the Argentine pampasthe arid grasslands of Mexico, and the southwestern United States. The jaguar prefers to live by rivers, swamps, and in dense rainforest with thick cover for stalking prey.
The jaguar has also been termed a keystone speciesas it is assumed, through controlling the population levels of prey such as herbivorous and granivorous mammals, apex felids maintain the structural integrity of forest systems. It is accepted that mid-sized prey species undergo population increases in the absence of the keystone predators, and this has been hypothesized to have cascading negative effects. Thus, the keystone predator hypothesis is not accepted by all scientists. The jaguar and the cougar, which is the next-largest feline of South America, but the biggest in Central or North America,  are often sympatric related species sharing overlapping territory and have often been studied in conjunction.
Its broader prey niche, including its ability to take smaller prey, may give it an advantage over the jaguar in human-altered landscapes;  while both are classified as near-threatened species, the cougar has a significantly larger current distribution. Depending on the availability of prey, the cougar and jaguar may even share it.
The cat probably mates throughout the year in the wild, with births increasing when prey is plentiful. The gestation period lasts 93— days; females give birth to up to four cubs, and most commonly to two. The mother will not tolerate the presence of males after the birth of cubs, given a risk of infanticide ; this behavior is also found in the tiger.
Cubs are weaned at three months, but remain in the birth den for six months before leaving to accompany their mother on hunts. Young males are at first nomadic, jostling with their older counterparts until they succeed in claiming a territory. Typical lifespan in the wild is estimated at around 12—15 years; in captivity, the jaguar lives up to 23 years, placing it among the longest-lived cats. Adults generally meet only to court and mate though limited noncourting socialization has been observed anecdotally  and carve out large territories for themselves.
Male ranges cover roughly twice as much area, varying in size with the availability of game and space, and do not overlap. The territory of a male can contain those of several females. Both sexes hunt, but males travel farther each day than females, befitting their larger territories. The jaguar may hunt during the day if game is available and is a relatively energetic feline, spending as much as 50—60 percent of its time active.
Hunting and diet The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite that allows it to pierce the shells of armored prey Like all cats, the jaguar is an obligate carnivorefeeding only on meat. It is an opportunistic hunter and its diet encompasses at least 87 species. Jaguars are excellent swimmers and will dive under the water to catch turtles in rivers and the occasional fish. The jaguar is more of a dietary generalist than its Old World cousins: A study conducted in Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary in Belize revealed that the diet of jaguars there consisted primarily of armadillos and pacas.
This indicates that jaguars might have once preyed on black bears when the species was still present in the area. Spectacled bears are also known to avoid jaguars, possibly because they may constitute occasional prey items.
He wills in the manner he desires. He is placing us in the palm of his hand; he is making us round. We roll; we become as pellets. He is casting us from side to side. We make him laugh; he is making a mockery of us. The form of the object was carved and engraved in a piece of charcoal which held the melted gold as a mold. Another method of working gold was to mold it around clay and then scrape out the unwanted clay. The Mixtecs were credited with supplying much of the fine jewelry to the Mexica.
Nezahualpilli translated to be "Fasting Prince". These summoned ghosts would often be led by "ghost kings" and come "raining", "Scattering", "flying", or "whirling" to the earth in the form of flowers or birds.
See also goddess Tlazoteotl. Yappan, meaning "Flag having the color of black maize", was a metaphorical name for the black scorpion.
In ancient Chichimec times may have been worshipped under the name of Tlalocateuctli, meaning "Land-lier-Lord". Tlalocateuctli was considered by Alcaron to be a metaphor for the owner of a sown field.
Known to the Olmec as "Epcoatl", meaning Seashell Serpent. There is speculation that this deity originated with the Olmec. A water god probably one of the oldest gods worshiped as a result of the importance of rain for crop production. Tlaloc was not a creator God but one created by other Gods. Although a beneficent god Tlaloc certainly had the power to unleash floods, lightning and drought when angry. To please him children were sacrificed to him as well as prisoners dressed in his image.
It is said that the more the babies and children cried the more Tlaloc was pleased. During the sacrifice the tears of the screaming children were seen as representations of falling rain, the more the children cried, the better the rain season.
Tlaloc is easily identified by his characteristic mask giving the impression of eyeglasses and a mustache. Blue is his dominant color and of his mask. His body and face are often painted black, and water is often depicted dripping from his hands. The name Tlaloc, derives from the term "tlalli", meaning earth, with the suffix "oc", meaning something that is on the surface. Those who died from drowning, lightning or things thought to be associated with water went to Tlacocan, the paradise of Tlaloc located in the South and was known as the place of fertility.
His home in Tenochtitlan was next to the same temple of the venerated Huitzilopochtli, where a special chamber was built. His statue was made of stone in the shape of a horrible monster.
The image was dressed in red with a green feather headdress. A string of green beads called chalchihuitl, "jade", hung from his neck. His ears, arms, and ankles were adorned with bracelets of precious stones.
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Apparently no other idols in the Mexica city were adorned with as many precious jewels at Tlaloc. In his right hand was a representation of a purple wooden thunderbolt, in his left hand was a leather bag filled with copal.
The idol was placed upon a green cloth draped over a dais. His body was sculpted as a man and the face like a monster. Known as Epcoatl, Seashell Serpentto the Olmec, and his religious themes were associated with children with that culture as well. Also known as Tlalteuctli, Earth Lord. May have been known as Oztoteotl, The God of Caveswho was principally worshipped in the Chalma area.
In the codex Vaticanus, Tlaloc is depicted as living inside of a mountain. Known by the Olmec as "Epcoatl", or Seashell Serpent. An interesting ceremony to Tlaloc by his priests was for the priests to throw themselves into frigid lake waters at midnight and imitate the sound and splashing of water birds to the point of exhaustion.
This was apparently done just to please Tlaloc. He would chew tobacco and periodically blow the horn. The direction of the rains Tlaloc sent were also of importance. The western rain was red colored from the sunset. This rain represented the richness of autumn. The southern rain was a rich blend of rain and summer fertility and considered aTlaloc's color. The eastern rain was a golden rain which fell lightly over the crops making the crops grow, a promise of life.
The north rain was a hail and thunder message from Tlaloc often bringing destruction. Snow and hail were thought of as representations of the bones of the past dead. The temple to Tlaloc, on Mt. Tlaloc, is approximately at the meter level with views of the twin volcanoes Popocatepetl and Ixtaccihuatl and the entire valleys of Pueblo and Mexico.
Tlaloc was located approximately twenty-five miles due east of Tenochtitlan and directly north of the twin volcanoes. While the Mexica leaders were conducting their ceremony, a large tree called "Father", or Tota, was erected near the great shrine to Tlaloc in Tenochtitlan and surrounded with small trees to symbolize a forest.
An impersonator of Chalchiuhtlicue, Goddess of the sea and lakes, was selected to sit in the forest and symbolize the lake. As the leaders were returning, the great tree was felled and rafted out to the Pantitlan shrine, located in the center of the lake, where a great fleet of canoes met the returning leaders.
The impersonator was then sacrificed, her blood poured into the water of the lake, jewelry given to the water of the lake, and the tree symbolically planted to indicate a renewal of life and growth. The tree was left to stand with the remains of trees planted in past years ceremonies. Tlaloc is an old god and has been worshiped by other Mesoamerican cultures long before the arrival of the Mexica, it would be interesting to review other cultures legends and compare.
The Mexica were famous for manipulating and re-writing history to further their own ends. The ruler elect of the Mexica is said to have spent a night naked before the image of Tezcatlipoca. In addition a common practice was to wear a cape with a large knot tied in it. When sitting the know would be placed over the back of the neck exposing genitals, when standing the knot would be placed at the shoulder. Not deities themselves but close enough. May be likened to devilish imps who served the rain god Tlaloc.
The Tlaloque were worshiped in special ceremonies during the sixteenth month of the Aztec calendar, Dec. The Tlaloque numbered four? On Tlaloc's orders one of the Tlaloque would take a particular jug and pour it over the world, thunder was thought to be the sound of the jugs breaking.
The Mexica considered the Tlaloque to be brothers to the goddess of corn. The gods of fertility, Xipe Totec and Cinteotl, were also known to carry this rattlestaff. Correlation have been made between the staff and the tree called Chicahuazteotl, "The God of Vigor" ripeness? S, both in illustrations and for lack of a better term "name dropping".
Aztecs: Worth the sacrifice
One wonders if they have bothered to research the daily rites practiced to this deity TF God of suffering.
Also known as "The Red Mirror" and his disguise was that of the Eagle. May have been worshiped by the name Tlatlauhqui Tezcatlipoca, meaning the red Tezcatlipoca. According to Sahagun this god was originally from Zapotlan, a town in the state of Xalisco and was well honored by all those living near the seashore.
His cult was greatly enhanced by Tlacaelel, half brother to Moctezuma I. His cult is centered around flaying a slave and covering a priest with the skin of his victim. The rite signified that with the arrival of spring the earth must cover itself with a new skin or coat of vegetation and swap old skin for new. Represented in codices as a red Tezcatlipoca and all clothes and adornments are red and his face is colored red with yellow stripes.
His Nahual or disguise is the Tlauhquechol or "spoon bird". He ruled over the East, the region of light, therefore fertility and life. Would afflict those who did not worship him with boils, blisters, and festering sores. Those chosen to wear the flayed skin of the victim dedicated to this god would wear the skin bloody side out with the victims hands left to hang flapping as the priest celebrated this rite.
The victim's blood dripping was thought to make the ground fettle and to simulate the falling of rain. He was the God of Goldsmiths as when the skin of a victim aged it turned gold colored, representation of the gold the workers used. Was also called Xipe-Totec-Tllatlauhquitezcatl. Totec meaning "awesome and terrible lord who fills one with dread", Xipe meaning "man who has been flayed and ill-treated", Tlatlauhquitezcatl, meaning "Mirror of fiery brightness". Xipe was worshipped through out Mesoamerica with references to his worship even being found in Teotihuacan II culture.
His festivals had more sacrifices than any of the other gods because the common people found it a popular ceremony and had more fun. The image of this idol was that of a man with mouth open and dressed in the skin of a sacrificed man.
On his wrists hung the hands of the victim. In his right hand was placed a staff with rattles attached at the ends. In his left hand was a shield adorned with yellow and red feathers. A red ribbon tied in a fancy bow was placed on his forehead and in the middle of the bow was placed a golden object. A well worked breechcloth, human skin? His image was always kept in this manor. Skins worn and decomposed by warriors in reverence to this god were collected and stored in a special vault under his special temple.
Also may have been worshipped at Tlatlauhqui Texcatl, meaning "Red Smoking Mirror", obvious connection with Tezcatliopoca.
Also known as Yohuallahuantzin, meaning "inebriated in the night", or "one who has become inebriated in the night". This term was an ancient term used in the worship of Xipe Totec. These insects would fasten themselves on the victim and suck blood or steal away the soul. This sacrifice was called "Tlacacaliztli", the sacrifice by arrows. Celebrated during the "Farewell to the Flowers" festival signifying the coming of frost.
This was a solemn festival. People would make merry and smell flowers knowing they were about to dry up and wither for the season. A feast in honor of the flowers would occur. Xochiquetzal was also the divinity of painters, embroiders, weavers, silversmiths and sculptors.
The image of this deity was of wood in the shape of a young woman. A gold ornament was placed over her mouth and a crown of red leather in the form of a braid was placed on her head.
Green bright feathered decorated this headband in the shape of horns. She was dressed in a blue tunic adorned with woven flowers made from delicate feather work. Her arms were open as in the form of a woman dancing.
Aztec Gods and Goddesses - Crystalinks
Her idol was placed on a tall alter and her attendants were the same as those who tended Huitzilopochtli as her temple was small and had no specially assigned priests. At the foot of the temple special priests took the bodies of the sacrificed virgins to the Ayauhcalli, "the house of the mist", which was a sort of cellar built especially for this sacrifice, where the bodies were kept.
Each of the dancing craftsmen would carry in their hands a symbol of their craft, a painter his brush, etc. Goddess of Artistry and Delight. In Duality she was also Macuilxochitl, a male representation.
God associated with maize and vegetation. Goddess of flowers, grains, and patroness of weavers. God of sculptors and embroiders. People who were born on One Flower or Seven Flower were pre-destined to become good at these crafts and worship this god.
Said to have afflicted those who displeased her with boils. She also is said to have eaten forbidden fruit from an aphrodisiac tree and became the first female to submit to sexual temptation. She was expelled from paradise and the tree split into two. She transformed into Ixnextli, "Ashes in Eyes", a metaphor for being blinded by crying. Her pain at not being able to look into the sky that she once lived in is why men can not look directly into the sun.
Xochiquetzal's flower was the marigold. Today in early November Mexico celebrates the day of the dead, or "All Souls", in which the ground is strewn with marigolds, combining old and new customs. May have been worshipped under the name Tonacacihuatl, meaning "Sustenance-Woman".
Worshipped during the festivals of Matlalcueyeh, Huei Pachtli, and Macuilxochiquetzal. They were treated as the returning spirits of the dead. These visits from butterflies were thought to be happy visits from the dead assuring the living relatives that they were fine and much joy would be felt seeing the butterflies fly around the ever-present bouquet of flowers in the home.
Of note it was considered impolite to smell a bouquet of flowers from the top. The proper way was from the side as the top was reserved for the dead souls that may return. The blood of butterflies is reported in Gillmor's book, p. During a wedding night if a young bride was found not to be a virgin, the husband would deliver baskets with no bottoms to his guests, which told of the shame and deception he had suffered, and the girl's family was disgraced and forced to pay compensation.
A stone representation of a Mexica monkey shows a sitting monkey with fruit in one hand and a symbol representing the female sex organs, "Oyoualli", on his chest. Quil were often sacrificed in the home by the common family. As the head was quickly removed the continuation of the bird's wings beatings would scatter the pulsing blood over the room and especially over the hearth fire.
On the day One Dog offerings were made to the Fire God with baskets of "clean white pure incense", common people were using mere handfuls of "course common incense", and very poor people were using aromatic herbs. Covering his mouth there is often a red mask in the form of a bird's beak. His mask identifies him as the god of wind and he was worshiped under the name of Ehecatl, or wind.
God of twins and monsters. Legend has Quetzalcoatl and his twin brother Xolotl, descending to hell and retrieving human bones. Men therefore, are the children of Quetzalcoatl. He is always presented as benevolent.
He taught men science and the calendar and devised ceremonies. He discovered corn, and all good aspects of civilization. Quetzalcoatl is a perfect representation of saintliness. His cult transformed into a type of nobility cult and only special sacrifices selected from the Nobel classes were made to him, and then only in secret.
Aztec Religion - Introduction Aztecs of Mexico History
Quetzalcoatl was said to be the son of Camaxtli and Chimalma and he was born in Michatlauhco, "Fish Deeps". His mother died during his birth and he was raised by his grandfathers. The multiplicity of Quetzalcoatl's roles attest to the antiquity of his cult following and his adoration.
He is credited with allowing the Spanish and Cortes to march into the Aztec lands.
The Aztec people thought Cortes was an incarnation of Quetzalcoatl returning from the East to retake his lands as told in legend. It was not uncommon for a hundred years after the conquest for merchants in smaller towns to work and save for twenty years just to throw a large banquet to this most revered god. Before the conquest slaves would have been bathed and sacrificed for this feast. The "Ehecailacacozcatl" or the winds that proceed a rain downpour were associated with Quetzalcoatl.
Lightning as it contains a serpentine shape was also associated with this god in the name xonecuilli. Also considered to be worshiped under the names Tlilpotonqui, "Feathered in Black", and possibly as Ecacouayo Mixtli, "A Twister", in association with his capacity as God of the Wind.
In the Codex Magliabechiano, pl. The Codex Cospi pls. In the Vienna Codex this god is depicted as an alert youth sitting at the feet of the "Old Ones", The dual divinity.
May have been worshiped under the name of "Our Reverend Prince", and Ocelocoatl in his black or night form. A bat grew from this union of semen and rock who other gods sent to bite the flower goddess Xochiquetzal. This bat bit off a piece of her vagina while she was sleeping and took it to the gods.
They then washed it and from the water that was spilled came forth flowers that smelled bad. This same bat took the flesh to Mictlantecuhtli where he washed the piece of flesh and the water that he used brought forth sweet smelling flowers the Indians called xochitrls. Often depicted holding a thorn used to let blood.
At that time merchants could leave the city and visitors could enter Tenochtitlan. The drum of Quetzalcoatl may be compared with the flute of Tezcatlipoca. The drum separated night from day. The flute was heard at night. The sound of the flute was shrill and anxiety followed it's music. According to Sahagun, Quetzalcoatl's temple was high with a narrow staircase with steps so narrow that feet had a hard time holding.
The image was covered with tapestries with an ugly and bearded face. This deity is depicted on a statue, currently in the British Museum, with ocelot claw ear-rings. This statue also holds a studded club in the right hand and in the left a skull, the sign of his twin brother Xolotl. The statue venerates the rising from the jaws of the feathered serpent as the morning star Venus rises to announce the sunrise. The statue further bears a collar symbol of the sun. According to Burland's book, this statue commemorates a transit of Venus in the year Lord of Healing and magical herbs, known as a symbol of thought and learning, of the arts, poetry, and all things good and beautiful.
Lord of Hope and Lord of the Morning Star. He has been likened to England's King Arthur, both a real person and myth. In the Codex Laud, Quetzalcoatl is seen as wind blowing in the waters. Sitting on the water, displaying her genitals, was a tempting Tlazoteotl. The wind of Quetzalcoatl is the breath of life and will fertilize her.
Quetzalcoatl was the god of life and gave penitence, love, and exemption from rituals of sacrifice and Auto sacrifice. His association with the feathered serpent is an interesting story. The quetzal bird, native to the western area of Guatemala and Mexico, was regarded as the most beautiful bird and called Quetzaltotolin, meaning "most precious".
The symbol of the feathered serpent was Quetzalcoatl, meaning not just feathered serpent, but "most precious serpent". Quetzalcoatl is not the feathered serpent but the one who emerges from the serpent as Venus rises from the morning horizon.
He has been depicted occasionally on statues showing him as a great priest, the Lord of Penitence, with a painted black stripe beside the eyes and a red ring surrounding the mouth and blue areas on the forehead. As Ehecatl, Lord of the Winds, he is depicted wearing a mask with a pointed snout covering his lower face.
This is known as his "wind mask", and is usually painted bright red. According to Burland this was derived from the Mexican whistling toad, Rhinophryne dorsalis. It's shape suggested the earth monster, a cross between an alligator and a toad.
Temples to Ehecatl were circular as the god of wind could blow or breath in any direction. In the Vienna Codex, Quetzalcoatl is depicted holding the heavens with his hands, symbolic of holding the rain clouds and sky in place. The Spanish missionaries early adopted the myth of Quetzalcoatl and thought that he was actually St. Thomas the Apostle, who had come to Mexico to help convert the Aztec Indians to Christianity and that the spirit of St.
Today the figure of Quetzalcoatl can be seen in department store windows in Mexico City replacing a traditional Santa Claws figure. This figure wears a garland of feathers and a representational mask of the old venerated god and symbolizes the bringing of life and gifts.
Often depicted as a white skinned god with a black beard. Recent scholarly theories suggest that the man-god may have been a wandering Viking who had lost his way. The word quetzalli eventually came to mean "treasure, or precious". The word coatl came to mean "dragon" as well as "snake" and occasionally "twin", hence it could mean "Precious Twin".