Relationship between alcinous and arete group

Nausicaa - Greek Mythology Link

In the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, Alcinous and Arete lived in the island of Drepane. They were visited by the group of heroes on their way back from the mythical land Link will appear as Alcinous: - Dec 29, Transactions of the American Philological Association () . which Odysseus finds himself at Alcinous' palace, addressing this audience of plausible: his evident need to parry Arete's curiosity about the provenance of his clothes . tendency to form groups of three found elsewhere throughout archaic Greek. Public Relations Chairman. National group of five students from one school . Arete. Nausithous, king of Phaeacia, had two sons, Rhexenor and Alcinous.

The dominant view is that of Martin Nilsson, who rejected the idea of a marriage bond between Erechtheus and Athena Polias, and instead imagined a Mycenaean war goddess living on the Acropolis in the palace of a representative Mycenaean king, namely Erechtheus.

Delphi had specified that the images be made from olive wood, and the Epidaurians had turned to Athens as having the most sacred or perhaps the only olive trees at that time. The Athenians agreed to this request on the condition that the Epidaurians would thereafter bring yearly sacrifices to Athena Polias and Erechtheus.

She is also herself, the queen of the Phaeacians, just as Alcinous is also himself, the king of the Phaeacians. At the end of the story Arete can only be herself, for the Phaeacians, as we have seen, are left to an uncertain future, and Athena can have no part in that.

In his farewell speech to Arete, as he leaves the palace for the waiting Phaeacian ship, Odysseus explicitly recognizes that the Phaeacian queen is indeed a mortal Odyssey May you fare well always, O queen, until old age and death come, which are the condition of men. I will return home; but in this house may you rejoice in your children and people and in Alcinous the king.

The scene is electric with anticipation, and it is nothing short of stunning that Arete makes no response. We have already noted that Alcinous also makes no immediate response, and we have found good reason for that in an inherited tension that has to do with an old quarrel between Odysseus and Nestor. But Alcinous was not appealed to directly by Odysseus, and, prodded by the aged retainer Ekheneos, he also reacts to Odysseus's presence well before Arete does.

Arete eventually breaks her silence and when she does the illusion that she is Athena Polias has already begun to dissipate. Her identification with Athena Polias is never as strong again once she speaks. This idea has implications for what the ancient image of Athena Polias, which is nowhere described for us, actually was. For at the moment of supplication Arete is represented as sitting at the hearth, holding the distaff, and spinning. Nausicaa has already told Odysseus that this is how he will find her Odyssey 6.

Arete is described in exactly these terms at her first appearance in the poem as well: She sat at the hearth with her serving women, spinning sea-purple wool from a distaff. Thus the scene has already been set twice before Odysseus enters the Phaeacian palace, and there is no need to describe it a third time.

‘Ulysses on the Hearth Presenting Himself to Alcinous and Arete’, after John Flaxman, | Tate

We already have in mind the figure whose knees Odysseus grasps when he makes his supplication. He only repeated what was commonly said about it, that it fell from heaven. The image itself was doubtless much older, but how old we do not know.

It played a central part in traditions about the Cylonian conspiracy of about BC: Iliad 6 offers a parallel for such a full-size seated image of Athena Polias in the Homeric era: Taking the robe fair-cheeked Theano placed it on the knees of beautiful-haired Athena. One thing is clear: It was very likely of a different order from other images, including those of Athena Polias in Troy and other cities.

The question of what this image was should be approached with an open mind. The fourth-century inventories reveal one very important thing about the image itself: This means that its right hand was extended. In representations of women spinning, the right hand is extended to spin wool drawn from a distaff, which is held at a higher level by the left hand; the pose is seen in this example: Perpetual fire is the essential element here, and from a Greek standpoint perpetual fire could be provided by either a hearth or a lamp.

The hearth probably became a lamp when the aegis and gorgoneion were added to the image itself, perhaps as early as the early sixth century. In front of them Pallas Athena held a golden lamp and made a beautiful light. Right then Telemachus quickly addressed his father: Surely some god is within, one of those inhabiting the wide sky.

When Odysseus finishes his appeal to Arete and the rest of the Phaeacians, he sits in the ashes next to the hearth and the fire Odyssey 7. So speaking he sat down by the hearth in the ashes near the fire. The scene of a suppliant seated in the ashes was presumably a familiar one in the temple of Athena Polias. But when Alcinous, with sacred power, heard this, he took the hand of wise Odysseus, with inventive mind, and raised him from the hearth and sat him on the shining chair.

The goddess herself in her temple would of course apparently do nothing during such an act, and that is what Arete does, apparently nothing. It is precisely by doing nothing that she becomes the goddess in this tableau. Being compared to a god is not unique to Arete Alcinous himself is compared to an immortal when he sits next to her and drinks wine, Odyssey 6. There are fifty of them and their tasks include grinding corn, weaving, and spinning Odyssey 7.

In his palace are fifty servant women, some of whom grind yellow grain on millstones, and others weave fabric and spin wool, seated like the leaves of a tall poplar; liquid oil runs from the close-woven cloth. The passage continues, saying that just as the Phaeacian men excel at seafaring, the women excel at weaving, for Athena has given them, beyond others, knowledge of beautiful crafts and good wits Odyssey 7.

As much as the Phaeacian men are skillful beyond all others at driving a swift ship on the sea, so the women are skillful at weaving; for Athena granted them beyond others understanding of beautiful works and good wits. But it is really Arete whom they emulate in this domain, as is indicated by the two descriptions of her spinning by firelight, in which the maidservants are very much her extension. In the end, of course, this comes back to Athena herself if Arete plays the part of Athena Polias.

Athena herself, however, is not incidental to this story; she manages the episode from beginning to end. Twice more Athena directs events from behind the scenes: Nausicaa does not want him to go all the way into town with her, fearing the comments of the townspeople. Then at once he prayed to the daughter of great Zeus: Grant that I come dear and pitied to the Phaeacians. Odysseus does not know what Athena is doing for him even now, because she does not appear to him openly.

But this is only part of the story. Then at once he prayed to the daughter of great Zeus. So much-enduring shining Odysseus prayed there. This is a complex situation, and it is carefully managed so that the two figures, Athena and Arete, do not interfere with each other. Indeed Athena, as soon as she has told Odysseus about Arete, removes herself from the scene by flying to Athens, leaving center stage to the figure that she has just introduced.

Thus it is not only respect for Poseidon that keeps Athena from appearing openly to Odysseus. The hidden identity of Arete simply would not work if it had to compete with the presence of Athena in her own persona.

Nausicaa has played her part and attention now shifts to Arete. I have focused first on Arete, arguing that she represents Athena as a mother goddess; but Athena is also of course a virgin goddess, and both sides of her seem to be represented by the Phaeacians. When Odysseus reaches shore in Phaeacia and falls asleep, Athena contrives to have Nausicaa find him there and bring him part way to town.

In the dream in which she appears to Nausicaa she tells the princess that she must go and do her washing in the morning for her wedding is near: Athena then leaves Scheria and goes to Olympus, and just as her second departure identifies her as Athena the city goddess of Athens, her first departure identifies her as Athena the Olympian. At once beautiful-throned Dawn came, who awakened her, beautiful-robed Nausicaa.

Iphicles is implied, however: Alcmena, who had Heracles by Zeus, is introduced as the wife of the mortal Amphitryon, who was the father of Iphicles Odyssey According to the myth Alcmena conceived the two twins by different fathers on the same night. The tale, which became the subject of comedy in Plautus, is told in the epic Shield of Heracles.

Part 3. Athens

Heracles is not called a twin in Odyssey 11, but he is one. In both respects this gives him something important in common with Nestor. A group of three heroines finishes the second half of the catalogue, ending the entire catalogue; Epikaste and her son Oedipus finish the first half of the catalogue. We will consider these passages more closely when we return to the structure of the catalogue as a whole and examine its component parts more critically.

I could not say or name all the wives and daughters of heroes that I saw; immortal night would pass away first. But it is time to sleep, either going to the swift ship and crew or here; but my voyage will be up to the gods and to you. In order to start it up again the Phaeacians must intervene and encourage him to continue. The burden is here shifted from Nestor, who did not bring Odysseus home, to the Phaeacians, who along with the gods will.

The interruption dramatizes this shift. Arete, the queen, is the first to speak. So far she has been rather reserved about Odysseus, but here, for the first time, she expresses complete admiration for him, and she tells the other Phaeacians not to stint on their gifts to him Odyssey White-armed Arete spoke to them first: He is my guest, but each of you has a share in the honor.

So do not rush to send him away, and do not cut short your gifts when he has such need; for many possessions lie in your halls by the will of the gods. Dear people, not at all beside the point or short of expectation does our wise queen speak; be persuaded by her.

But on Alcinous here both word and deed depend. This will be my word, exactly so, if I live and rule over the oar-loving Phaeacians. But let the stranger be patient, though he longs for his return, and wait until tomorrow, until I make good his whole gift.

His voyage will be up to all the men, but most of all to me; for I hold the power in the land. We now see that that responsibility has been shifted to Alcinous in particular, who accepts it: To dramatize this shift Alcinous gets Odysseus to restart his story by asking him if he saw any of his companions from Troy in the underworld Odyssey Odysseus, in answering him, resumes his story, which in due course will take him back out of the underworld and up to the present.

Alcinous has taken over for Nestor symbolically in the underworld, and as Odysseus moves forward from this point he now has Alcinous on his side. Just as Nestor is the son of the founder of his city, so too is Alcinous. We learn this at the very outset of the Phaeacian episode, when Athena enters the Phaeacian city to appear in a dream to Nausicaa. The Phaeacians are here introduced as having formerly lived near the Cyclopes, who were stronger than they and brought them harm. Hence godlike Nausithoos moved his people to Scheria, their present home, and built a city for them.

Nausithoos was now dead, and Alcinous ruled in his place Odyssey 6. They once lived in wide Hypereia near the Cyclopes, overbearing men who harmed them, for they were greater in strength. Uprooting his people godlike Nausithoos led them away and settled them in Scheria, far from laboring men, and drove a wall around the city and built dwellings, and made temples of the gods and apportioned fields.

But he had already succumbed to death and gone to Hades, and Alcinoos, knowing counsels from the gods, now ruled. In this passage Nausithoos is called the founder of Scheria, and his role as founder is emphasized by a detailed description of his act: Neleus too was now dead, and Nestor ruled in his place Odyssey 3.

But when early-born rosy-fingered dawn appeared, the Gerenian horseman Nestor rose from bed, and went out and sat on polished stones that were in front of his high doors, white and glistening with oil, on which formerly Neleus would sit, a counselor equal to the gods; but he had already succumbed to death and gone to Hades, and Gerenian Nestor, guardian of the Achaeans, now sat on them holding his scepter. The repeated line, used first of Neleus, then of Nausithoos, occurs nowhere else.

The parallel in diction strongly reinforces the parallel in content, and it begins to appear that the parallel in content is deliberate—that we are meant to be reminded of Neleus and Nestor when we first hear about Nausithoos and Alcinous.

On her first entrance she appeared to Nausicaa in a dream. Now, on her second entrance, she disguises herself as a young maiden, and she encounters Odysseus himself in order to lead him to the Phaeacian palace.

Odysseus has already learned from Nausicaa that her parents are Alcinous and Arete, the king and queen. Athena, who like Nausicaa stresses the need to make a favorable impression on the queen, goes on to give Odysseus a genealogy of the royal family, which is the same for the king and queen, since they are not only husband and wife, but also uncle and niece. Nausithoos, Athena says, was the son of Poseidon and the youngest daughter of a king of the giants named Eurymedon. This otherwise unknown figure destroyed both himself and his reckless people, but his daughter, whose name was Periboia, was apparently spared, for she bore Nausithoos to Poseidon, and Nausithoos became the king of the Phaeacians Odyssey 7.

But he destroyed his reckless people and was himself destroyed. Poseidon made love with her and fathered a child, great-hearted Nausithoos, who ruled among the Phaeacians. How Eurymedon destroyed himself and his people is not told, but the answer is implied in their designation as overbearing giants. For giants in Greek myth notoriously fought against the Olympian gods and were destroyed by them. We are doubtless meant to understand that Eurymedon and his people likewise rivaled the gods and were destroyed by them.

As we are explicitly told in the first passage of the catalogue of heroines in Odyssey 11, the god Poseidon made love to Tyro, the mother of Neleus, just as he did to Periboia, the mother of Nausithoos.

The only one of his race who was spared destruction, furthermore, was his daughter Tyro, who mated with Poseidon and gave birth to the city founder Neleus.

Periboia, who gave birth to the city founder Nausithoos, likewise seems to be the sole survivor of her race. To show that like Zeus he wielded thunder and lightning, he dragged bronze cauldrons behind his chariot to imitate thunder and threw torches into the sky to imitate lightning.

We do not have the full text of the Hesiodic treatment of the myth, but a papyrus fragment Hesiod fr. More fully preserved by this fragment is the reaction of Zeus, who destroys the entire people of Salmoneus because of his transgression Hesiod fr. The father of men and gods was offended, and he thundered [harshly] from the starry sky, [] ; he shook the whole earth.

Then we learn about Tyro, who was spared the fate of the rest of her people because she tried to stop her father from committing his act of hubris Hesiod fr.

In the case of the Phaeacian progenitor Eurymedon his hubris has been made explicit so that his correspondence to Salmoneus may be perceived. In the case of Salmoneus we do not need to hear about his crime because it is already well known.

The Odyssey (Books 7-9)

For it is the correspondence between these two that is central to the story of the Odyssey. We have so far dealt only with the first part of the Phaeacian genealogy that Athena tells to Odysseus in Book 7. What she tells him next concerns Alcinous. As we have seen, Odyssey 11 does not call Nestor a twin whose warrior brother Periklymenos died.

These are things that we have had to reconstruct painstakingly, and that we can now say are implied by the structure of the catalogue in Odyssey 11, but that the surface of the text deliberately disguises. In the case of Alcinous, on the other hand, what is implied for Nestor is made explicit: Apollo shot him when he was just a bridegroom, and he left just a single daughter, Arete, whom Alcinous married Odyssey 7. Nausithoos fathered Rhexenor and Alcinous.