The Dutch Revolt: a social analysis – International Socialism
This major rebellion against Philip II of Spain – who was overlord of the repertoire have uncovered the strong ties between religion, politics and memory. .. child of Philip IV of Spain's first marriage to Elisabeth of France. Despite the New Religion being a major cause of the conflicts across the Anglo -Spanish relations were certainly unstable over the decades leading to war, to the Dutch people but also to the keenly attentive English government across the. dence from Spain or the creation of a republican regime? Religious freedom: was it the right of all the Dutch Revolt is seen as an anticipation of the French Revolu- . king's government.5 Philip withdrew Granvelle to appease the ticular on the difference between the Dutch Revolt and the Wars of Religion in France.
InWilliam returned to try to drive the highly unpopular Duke of Alba from Brussels. William's nominal purpose was to remove misguided ministers like Alba, end rebellion, and thus restore the proper authority of King Phillip.
This view is reflected in today's Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmusin which the last lines of the first stanza read: In pamphlets and in his letters to allies in the Netherlands William also called attention to the right of subjects to renounce their oaths of obedience if the sovereign would not respect their privileges.
Armies led by his brothers invaded from Germany while French Huguenots invaded from the south. The Spanish had won the Battle of Rheindalen near Roermond on 23 Aprilbut the Battle of Heiligerleefought on 23 Mayis commonly regarded as the beginning of the Eighty Years' Warand it was a victory for the rebel army.
The Political Rediscovery of the Dutch Revolt in the Seventeenth-Century Habsburg Netherlands
But the campaign ended in failure as William ran out of money and his own army disintegrated, while those of his allies were destroyed by the Duke of Alba.
William remained at large and, as the only grandee still able to offer resistance, was from then on seen as the leader of the rebellion.
Its struggle against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea put serious limits on the military power it could deploy against the rebels in the Netherlands.
France too was opposing Spain at every juncture. Furthermore, England, particularly English privateerswere harassing Spanish shipping and its colonies in the Atlantic. Already in William I of Orange had asked for Ottoman support. As Suleiman the Magnificent claimed that he felt religiously close to the Protestants, "since they did not worship idols, believed in one God and fought against the Pope and Emperor"   he supported the Dutch together with the French and the Englishas well as generally supporting Protestants and Calvinists as a way to counter Habsburg attempts at supremacy in Europe.
Even so, by the Spanish had more or less suppressed the rebellion throughout the Netherlands. This proposal was rejected by the States, and a compromise was subsequently agreed upon. Then, inAlba decided to press forward with the collection of the Tenth Penny regardless of the States' opposition.
The Gueux under their leader Lumey then unexpectedly captured the almost undefended town of Brill on 1 April. In securing Brill, the rebels had gained a foothold, and more importantly a token victory in the north. This was a sign for Protestants all over the Low Countries to rebel once more.
Vroom, oil on canvas Most of the important cities in the provinces of Holland and Zeeland declared loyalty to the rebels. Notable exceptions were Amsterdam and Middelburgwhich remained loyal to the Catholic cause until William of Orange was put at the head of the revolt.
It was agreed that power would be shared between Orange and the States. However, this also led to an increased discord amongst the Dutch. On one side there was a militant Calvinist minority that wanted to continue fighting the Catholic Philip II and convert all Dutch citizens to Calvinism. On the other end was a mostly Catholic minority that wanted to remain loyal to the governor and his administration in Brussels.
In between was the large majority of Catholic Dutch that had no particular allegiance, but mostly wanted to restore Dutch privileges and the expulsion of the Spanish mercenary armies. William of Orange was the central figure who had to rally these groups to a common goal. Towards the end of Charles' reign, enforcement had therefore become quite lax. Philip, however, insisted on rigorous enforcement and this caused more and more popular unrest. In the province of Holland, for instance, there were riots in the late s during which the mob freed some condemned persons before their execution.
This amounted to the introduction of fourteen new dioceses instead of the old three. This new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen.
The reform was especially unpopular with the old church hierarchy as the new dioceses were to be financed by transferring a number of rich abbeys that were traditionally in the gift of the high aristocracy.
The new bishops were to take the lead in the enforcement of the anti-heresy placards and to intensify the Inquisition. The grandees under the leadership of Orange engineered his recall in Emboldened by this success Orange intensified his attempts to obtain religious toleration.
He persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy.
The Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands
Philip delayed his response, however, and in the meantime the opposition against his religious policies gained more widespread support. When Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October,this only fanned the flames. A group of members of the lesser nobility, among whom Louis of Nassaua younger brother of Orange, and the brothers John and Philip of St. Aldegondeprepared a petition for the abolition of the Inquisition for Philip.
This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about nobles, both Catholics and Protestants. It was presented to Margaret on April 5, at an audience for about members of the Compromise which Margaret found rather intimidating. According to legend the petitioners were dismissed as gueux beggars by one of Margaret's courtiers; the rebels would later use that name as a rallying cry.
Margaret was sufficiently impressed to order the suspension of the placards pending Philip's final decision on April 9. The first case examines the conflicting political usage of war memories by Habsburg government authorities and Count Henry van den Bergh during the conspiracy of nobles against the regime in The sources mostly consist of propagandistic literature published by and on behalf of key political figures during the three crises. I have measured these sources against anonymous pamphlet literature, correspondence, and handwritten chronicles.
Yet both states had serious political problems too. The Republic remained a confederation of independent states barely held together by the cultivation of a common enemy. And in the Southern Netherlands, support for the Habsburgs was not self-evident. The reign of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella — proved very successful compared to the early stages of the Revolt in the late sixteenth century.
Government anxiety was not limited to the Habsburg Netherlands. On December 21, the Spanish inquisitor-general Cardinal Antonio Zapata y Cisneros mentioned in a meeting of the Spanish Council of State the power vacuum of following the death of Governor General Luis de Requesens, as a reminder of the revolutionary potential of a discontent population.
Appointed maestro de campo general in the Army of Flanders inas a temporary replacement for Ambrogio Spinola, senior government officials held Van den Bergh responsible for the loss of Den Bosch in and accused him of treachery.
Causes of the Dutch Revolt - Wikipedia
Himself dissatisfied with the Habsburg administration in the South, he defected to the Dutch enemy. They agreed that Frederick Henry would substitute his already existing plans to march on Antwerp for a campaign along the Meuse River. Van den Bergh, who was then stadholder of Upper Guelders, would feign ignorance of these plans. In the meantime, enemies of the Habsburgs as well as domestic political dissidents such as Van den Bergh used memories of the sixteenth-century Revolt to incite popular opposition against the regime in the Habsburg Netherlands.
Inthe States General hoped that Southern elites would do so again. His assumption that people would understand references to the Revolt is not surprising. Scholars have already shown that elites could access information about the Revolt in private libraries. On June 8 the chaplain sighed: The invocation of the power vacuum of and the subsequent troubles served to persuade the population that support for Count Henry would lead to an undesirable return to the tumultuous and dangerous period of the Revolt.