Pressure and the Gas Laws
This relationship between temperature and pressure is observed for any sample of Under either name, it states that the pressure of a given amount of gas is The calculation will be as accurate as the equation and measurements allow. Online calculator with Saturated Steam Table by Pressure. Includes 53 different calculations. Equations displayed for easy reference. Calculate the proportionality constant (k) formed by the ratio of the initial temperature to the initial pressure. Use the formula: k = T1/P1.
A more convient unit is the torr.
A torr is the same unit as the mmHg millimeter of mercury. It is the pressure that is needed to raise a tube of mercury 1 millimeter. The Pressure-Volume Law Boyle's law or the pressure-volume law states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure when the temperature and mass are constant.
Another way to describing it is saying that their products are constant.
Calculator: Saturated Steam Table by Pressure | TLV - A Steam Specialist Company (International)
When volume goes up, pressure goes down. From the equation above, this can be derived: This equation states that the product of the initial volume and pressure is equal to the product of the volume and pressure after a change in one of them under constant temperature. For example, if the initial volume was mL at a pressure of torr, when the volume is compressed to mL, what is the pressure?
Plug in the values: The Temperature-Volume Law This law states that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant pressure is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. V Same as before, a constant can be put in: Also same as before, initial and final volumes and temperatures under constant pressure can be calculated.
The Pressure Temperature Law This law states that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. P Same as before, a constant can be put in: The Volume Amount Law Amedeo Avogadro Gives the relationship between volume and amount when pressure and temperature are held constant.
Remember amount is measured in moles. Also, since volume is one of the variables, that means the container holding the gas is flexible in some way and can expand or contract. If the amount of gas in a container is increased, the volume increases.
If the amount of gas in a container is decreased, the volume decreases. In addition, because the density of liquids does not change with height most liquids are incompressiblesuch an equivalent liquid column has a well defined upper boundary below a vacuumOne of the heaviest liquids at room temperature is mercury Hg and the height of the Hg-column that is equivalent to normal pressure mb is only mm long For this reason, columns of mercury, "hanging" in an inverted vacuum tube, can be used as practical instruments to measure atmospheric pressure see FigureLutgens and Tarbuck, If water were used instead of mercury, the height of the column equivalent to normal pressure would be The Gas Laws The example of the gas-filled balloon can also be used to explore the basic gas laws see also Appendix D, p.
In the following, lets assume that the balloon is tight, so that the amount or mass of air in it stays the same: With density being the ratio of mass per volume, the gas density of the balloon thus varies only with its volume when mass is held constant.
If we squeeze the balloon, we compress the air and two things will happen: Since density is mass over volume, and the mass stays constant, the rise in density means that the volume of the balloon decreases: For two states of pressure P1, P2 and two corresponding volumes V1, V2this is stated mathematically: This in turn increases the rate at which the gas molecules bombard the skin of the balloon.